Urban density: Difference between revisions

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(→‎Measurement: Add median density as metric / add refs / rearrange list)
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It is commonly asserted that higher density cities are more sustainable than low density cities. Much urban [[Urban planning|planning theory]], particularly in North America, the UK, Australia and New Zealand has been developed premised on raising urban densities, such as [[New Urbanism]], [[transit-oriented development]], and [[smart growth]]. This assertion, however, remains a contested or challenged one.<ref>Williams, Katie, Elizabeth Burton, and Mike Jenks. "[https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=MliRAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA71&dq=%22Achieving+the+compact+city+through+intensification:+An+acceptable+option%22&ots=vYZ_jX1ikb&sig=HFPaZiKxFJdTOq2L7heB392L1c8 Achieving the compact city through intensification: An acceptable option]." The compact city: A sustainable urban form (1996): 83-96.</ref>
 
The link between urban density and aspects of [[sustainability]] remains a contested area of planning theory.<ref>{{Cite journal|title =Spatial Distribution of U.S. Household Carbon Footprints Reveals Suburbanization Undermines Greenhouse Gas Benefits of Urban Population Density|last = Jones|first = Christopher|year=2014 |volume=48 |issue=2 |pages=895–902 |journal = Environmental Science and Technology |doi = 10.1021/es4034364 |pmid = 24328208|bibcode = 2014EnST...48..895J}}</ref> [[Jan Gehl]], prominent Urban Designer and expert on [[sustainable urbanism]], argues that low-density, dispersed cities are unsustainable as they are [[Automobile dependency|automobile dependent]]. NASA, for example, has established a direct correlation between urban density and air pollution.<ref>{{Cite journal|url=https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasa-scientists-relate-urban-population-to-air-pollution/|title=NASA scientists relate urban population to air pollution|date=2013|website=NASA's Earth Science News Team|doi=10.1016/j.jul.2019.08.006|access-date=2019-07-09|doi-broken-date=20192020-1205-1221}}</ref>
 
Others, such as Randy O'Toole of the [[Libertarianism|Libertarian]] [[Cato Institute]], point to how raising densities results in more expensive real estate, greater road congestion and more localized air pollution. At a broader level, there is evidence to indicate a strong negative correlation between the total energy consumption of a city and its overall urban density, i.e. the lower the density, the more energy consumed.<ref>
* [[Population density]] - the number of human persons per unit area
** Median density - a density metric which measures the density at which the average person lives. It is determined by ranking the census tracts by population density, and taking the density at which fifty percent of the population lives at a higher density and fifty percent lives at a lower density.<ref>
{{ Cite web | last = Rowlands | first = D. W. | date = 27 November 2017 | title = The way we calculate population density is wrong. Here’sHere's what we should do instead | url = https://ggwash.org/view/65370/median-versus-average-population-density | website = Greater Greater Washington | access-date = 27 April 2020 }} </ref>
** Population-weighted density - a density metric which measures the density at which the average person lives. It is determined by calculating the standard density of each census tract, assigning each a weight equal to its share of the total population, and then adding the segments.<ref> {{cite webdocument | url = https://ssrn.com/abstract=3119965 | doi = 10.2139/ssrn.3119965 | title = On Population-Weighted Density | last = Ottensmann | first = John R. | date = 1 Feb 2018
| website = | publisher = [[SSRN]] | access-date = 27 April 2020 | quote = Population-weighted density is the mean of the densities of subareas of a larger area weighted by the populations of those subareas.}} </ref>
* Residential density - the number of dwelling units in any given area
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