Effects of Hurricane Wilma in Mexico: Difference between revisions

m (→‎Impact: rw)
Wilma was attended by a significant [[storm surge]], estimated as high as {{convert|15|ft|m|abbr=on|order=flip}} by the NHC,<ref name="TCR"/> which resulted in extensive beach erosion.<ref name="mexdam"/> The hurricane also damaged [[coral reef]]s offshore.<ref name="erd"/> In Cancún, the wave action washed away about 700,000&nbsp;[[cubic metre|m<sup>3</sup>]] (247&nbsp;million ft<sup>3</sup>) of sand from beaches.<ref name="dp">{{cite news|publisher=Digital Post|title=Huracán Wilma en Cancún, afectó el tejido social|language=Spanish|accessdate=March 18, 2020|url=https://digitallpost.com.mx/destacado/huracan-wilma-en-cancun-afecto-el-tejido-social/}}</ref> The seawater intrusion upset the microbial composition of the Nichupté Bojórquez lagoon system near Cancún,<ref>{{cite journal|author=Carbajal Pérez, N.|year=2009|title=Hidrodinámica y transporte de contaminantes y sedimentos en el Sistema Lagunar de Nichupté-Bojórquez, Quintana Roo|publisher=[[Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad]]|accessdate=March 18, 2020|language=Spanish|url=http://www.conabio.gob.mx/institucion/proyectos/resultados/inf_1ra_parte_CQ063.pdf|format=PDF}}</ref> and more broadly injured vegetation near the coast.<ref name="mexdam"/> High waves from the hurricane trapped or immobilized about 3,800&nbsp;boats in Mexico, with another 96&nbsp;being damaged.<ref name="gub"/> The hurricane also damaged {{convert|490|km2|mi2|abbr=on}} of crops, largely in Yucatán.<ref name="mexdam"/> Affected agricultural industries included corn, papayas, tomatoes, chili peppers, and livestock; fences, wind vanes, and other equipment were all damaged. The storm killed about 10% of the region's bees, affecting 83,000&nbsp;colonies. The storm damaged {{convert|900|km2|mi2|abbr=on}} of grasslands, threatening the food supply of about 100,000&nbsp;cows.<ref name="gub">{{cite report|title=Mexico: El Presidente Fox encabezó una Reunión de Evaluación de las zonas afectadas por el Huracán Wilma|date=October 24, 2005|at=ReliefWeb|accessdate=March 13, 2020|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/mexico/mexico-el-presidente-fox-encabezó-una-reunión-de-evaluación-de-las-zonas-afectadas-por|language=Spanish}}</ref> Across the Yucatán Peninsula, the hurricane destroyed a cumulative {{convert|1000000|acre|ha|abbr=on}} of forest.<ref name="erd">{{cite report|work=Episcopal Relief and Development|at=ReliefWeb|date=November 1, 2005|title=ERD aids communities in Mexico after Hurricane Wilma|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/mexico/erd-aids-communities-mexico-after-hurricane-wilma|accessdate=March 9, 2020}}</ref>
Across Mexico, Wilma killed eight people – seven in Quintana Roo, and one in Yucatán.<ref name="Xin">{{cite news|agency=[[Xinhua]] via [[Comtex]]|date=October 23, 2005|accessdate=March 18, 2020|title=Wilma kills 8 in southeast Mexico|at=ReliefWeb|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/mexico/wilma-kills-8-southeast-mexico}}</ref> In Playa del Carmen, two people died and another seven were injured when a gas tank exploded.<ref>{{cite news|agency=El Pais|date=October 22, 2005|title=El huracán Wilma pierde intensidad a su paso por la península de Yucatán|url=https://elpais.com/internacional/2005/10/22/actualidad/1129932001_850215.html|accessdate=March 18, 2020|language=Spanish}}</ref> One person died in Yucatán after being struck by a fallen tree branch.<ref>{{cite news|title=Three killed in Wilma’s Mexican blitz|date=October 23, 2005|newspaper=Lawrence Journal World|accessdate=March 18, 2020|url=https://www2.ljworld.com/news/2005/oct/23/three_killed_wilmas_mexican_blitz/}}</ref> Three people died on Cozumel.<ref name="ocha6">{{cite report|work=U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs|at=ReliefWeb|accessdate=March 12, 2020|date=October 25, 2005|title=The Caribbean: Hurricane Wilma OCHA Situation Report No. 6|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/cuba/caribbean-hurricane-wilma-ocha-situation-report-no-6}}</ref> One person in Cancún was electrocuted while preparing for the storm.<ref name="ifrc1021">{{cite report|title=Caribbean, Central America, and Mexico: Hurricane Wilma – Information Bulletin n° 3|work=International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies|at=ReliefWeb|date=October 21, 2005|accessdate=March 12, 2020|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/belize/caribbean-central-america-and-mexico-hurricane-wilma-information-bulletin-n-3}}</ref> Another person died in Cancún because of glass from a broken window.<ref>{{cite news|title=Hurricane Wilma batters Mexican resorts, six dead |date=October 23, 2005|author=Noel Randewich|newspaper=The Star|accessdate=March 18, 2020|url=https://www.thestar.com.my/news/world/2005/10/23/hurricane-wilma-batters-mexican-resorts-six-dead}}</ref> Throughout Mexico, Wilma's damage was estimated at $4.8&nbsp;billion (MXN, US$442&nbsp;million). The hurricane caused an additional $13.9&nbsp;billion (US$1.3&nbsp;billion) in lost economic output and earnings, 95% of which was related to lost tourism revenue.<ref name="mexdam"/> Wilma damaged 28,980&nbsp;houses along its path.<ref name="mexdam"/> Concrete housesbuildings fared better than those constructed out of local materials.<ref name="sa"/> The storm damaged about 10,000&nbsp;power lines, causing power outages for about 300,000&nbsp;people.<ref name="elun"/> Damage to transmission towers and antennas disrupted communications networks.<ref name="mexdam"/> DamageThe cost to repair the electrical systemsinfrastructure totaledwas $397.5&nbsp;million (MXN, US$36.6&nbsp;million), mostly in Quintana Roo.<ref name="univer"/><ref name="sa"/><ref name="wv">{{cite report|work=World Vision|date=October 25, 2005|title=Hurricane Wilma devastates Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico|at=ReliefWeb|accessdate=March 12, 2020|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/mexico/hurricane-wilma-devastates-yucatan-peninsula-mexico}}</ref> Across the region, Wilma damaged 473&nbsp;schools,<ref name="mexdam"/> including about 60% of such institutions in Quintana Roo. Damage to schools accounted for $156&nbsp;million (MXN, US$14.4&nbsp;million) of the hurricane's cost. Hospitals, particularly in Cancún and Cozumel, sustained damage to medical equipment.<ref name="univer"/> High winds blew down traffic signals, signs, and fences.<ref name="mexdam">{{cite report|title=Características e Impacto Socioeconómico de los Principales Desastres Ocurridos en la República Mexicana en el Año 2005|date=August 2006|language=Spanish|url=http://www.proteccioncivil.gob.mx/work/models/ProteccionCivil/Resource/375/1/images/no_7.pdf|format=PDF|publisher=Sistema Nacional de Protección Civil|accessdate=February 10, 2020}}</ref>
Damage was heaviest in Quintana Roo, amounting to an estimated $4.506&nbsp;billion (MXN, US$415&nbsp;million); this made it the state's costliest hurricane. Across the state, Wilma destroyed 4,571&nbsp;houses and damaged another 18,179 to some degree.<ref name="mexdam"/> Wilma also damaged 98% of the hotels in Quintana Roo, which includes the resort towns of Cozumel, Cancún, and Playa del Carmen.<ref>{{cite journal|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=LoRNAQAAMAAJ&lpg=RA4-PA11&dq=%22hurricane%20wilma%22%20merida%20yucatan%20airport&pg=RA4-PA9#v=onepage&q&f=false|journal=State Magazine|date=February 2008|page=9-11|title=Storm Teams|author=Thu M. Nyugen}}</ref> The hurricane caused significant damage in Cozumel and Isla Mujeres, both located off the east coast of the Yucatán Peninsula.<ref name="mexdam"/> The Cozumel boardwalk was wrecked.<ref name="univer"/> Wilma left parts of the Quintana Roo mainland without power, water, and gas.<ref name="ocha5"/> The storm damaged businesses, gas stations, and warehouses.<ref name="univer"/> High waves damaged the foundation of a hotel in [[Puerto Morelos]], causing its partial collapse; it was later demolished.<ref name="univer"/> The hurricane caused significant flooding damage throughout the municipalities of [[Benito Juárez Municipality, Quintana Roo|Benito Juárez]] and [[Solidaridad Municipality|Solidaridad]], which include Cancún and Playa del Carmen. Floodwaters on Cozumel reached {{convert|1|m|ft|abbr=on}} deep in spots.<ref name="mexdam"/>