Effects of Hurricane Wilma in Mexico: Difference between revisions

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[[File:Hurricane Wilma 21 oct 2005 1625Z.jpg|right|thumb|Hurricane Wilma about to cross Cozumel, a small island just off the Yucatán Peninsula coast|alt=Satellite image of Wilma with an expansive area of rainbands to its east and northeast]]
WhileHurricane driftingWilma nearproduced thetorrential Yucatánrainfall Peninsula,while Hurricanemoving Wilmaslowly droppednear torrentialthe rainfallYucatán Peninsula. Over a 24-hour period beginning at 12:30&nbsp;UTC on October&nbsp;21, a [[pluviometer|rain gauge]] on the offshore [[Isla Mujeres]] recorded {{convert|1633.98|mm|in|abbr=on}} of precipitation. This broke the record for Mexico's highest 24-hour rainfall total, as well as the highest 24&nbsp;hour rainfall total in the Western Hemisphere.<ref name="wmo">{{cite report|url=https://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/FINAL-REPORT-HC-28.pdf|format=PDF|title=Final Report of the RA IV Hurricane Committee Twenty-Eighth Session|year=2006|accessdate=February 6, 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=Randall Cerveny|author2=Valentina Davydova Belitskaya|author3=Pierre Bessemoulin|author4=Miguel Cortez|author5=Chris Landsea|author6=Thomas C. Peterson|title=A New Western Hemisphere 24-hour Rainfall Record|year=2007|publisher=World Meteorological Organization|url=https://public.wmo.int/en/bulletin/new-western-hemisphere-24-hour-rainfall-record|accessdate=April 14, 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190506052659/https://public.wmo.int/en/bulletin/new-western-hemisphere-24-hour-rainfall-record|archive-date=May 6, 2019|url-status=live}}</ref> This was greater than the annual rainfall of Quintana Roo.<ref name="mexdam"/> OverOf athat 12-hour periodtotal, the Isla Mujeres station recorded {{convert|1082|mm|in|abbr=on}} fell in a span of precipitation12&nbsp;hours. This was onlyjust {{convert|62|mm|in|abbr=on}} short of the global record for 12-hour tropical cyclone rainfall over 12&nbsp;hours, set by [[1965–66_South-West_Indian_Ocean_cyclone_season#Tropical_Cyclone_Denise|Cyclone Denise]] in 1966.<ref name="smn"/> Other notable rainfall totals include {{convert|770|mm|in|abbr=on}} recorded in Cancún, and {{convert|376.5|mm|in|abbr=on}} recorded in [[Loché, Yucatán]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Lluvias asociadas a ciclones tropicales|url=https://smn.conagua.gob.mx/es/ciclones-tropicales/lluvias-asociadas-a-ciclones-tropicales|publisher=Servicio Meteorológico Nacional|accessdate=April 15, 2020|language=Spanish}}</ref> Wilma lashed parts of the Yucatán Peninsula with tropical storm-force winds for nearly 50&nbsp;hours.<ref name="wmo"/> On the Mexican mainland, aA station in [[Cancún]] recorded 10-minute sustained winds of 160&nbsp;km/h (100&nbsp;mph),<ref name="TCR"/> with gusts to 212&nbsp;km/h (132&nbsp;mph) before the [[anemometer]] failed; gusts were estimated at {{convert|230|km/h|mph|abbr=on}}.<ref name="wmo"/> The gust in Cancún was the strongest ever recorded in Mexico.<ref name="smn">{{cite report|url=https://smn.conagua.gob.mx/tools/DATA/Ciclones%20Tropicales/Ciclones/2005-Wilma.pdf|format=PDF|publisher=[[Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (Mexico)|Servicio Meteorológico Nacional]]|title=Resumen del Huracán "Wilma" del Océano Atlático|author=Alberto Hernández Unzón|author2=M.G. Cirilo Bravo|accessdate=April 15, 2020|language=Spanish}}</ref>
Hurricane Wilma inundatedwas partsattended of the northeastern Yucatán Peninsula withby a significant [[storm surge]], estimated by the NHC as high as {{convert|15|ft|m|abbr=on|order=flip}} by the NHC,<ref name="TCR"/> resultingwhich resulted in significantextensive beach erosion.<ref name="mexdam"/> The hurricane also damaged coastal [[coral reef]]s offshore.<ref name="erd"/> In Cancún, the wave action washed away about 700,000&nbsp;[[cubic metre|m<sup>3</sup>]] (247&nbsp;million ft<sup>3</sup>) of sand from beaches.<ref name="dp">{{cite news|publisher=Digital Post|title=Huracán Wilma en Cancún, afectó el tejido social|language=Spanish|accessdate=March 18, 2020|url=https://digitallpost.com.mx/destacado/huracan-wilma-en-cancun-afecto-el-tejido-social/}}</ref> The seawatersseawater intrudedintrusion intoupset the microbial composition of the Nichupté Bojórquez lagoon system near Cancún, causing a disruption in the body of water's bacterial composition.<ref>{{cite journal|author=Carbajal Pérez, N.|year=2009|title=Hidrodinámica y transporte de contaminantes y sedimentos en el Sistema Lagunar de Nichupté-Bojórquez, Quintana Roo|publisher=[[Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad]]|accessdate=March 18, 2020|language=Spanish|url=http://www.conabio.gob.mx/institucion/proyectos/resultados/inf_1ra_parte_CQ063.pdf|format=PDF}}</ref> Seawaterand alsomore damagedbroadly coastalinjured vegetation near the coast.<ref name="mexdam"/> High waves from the hurricane trapped or immobilized about 3,800&nbsp;boats in the countryMexico, with another 96&nbsp;boats that werebeing damaged.<ref name="gub"/> The hurricane also caused damaged {{convert|490|km2|mi2|abbr=on}} worth of crops, which was more substantiallargely in Yucatán state than Quintana Roo.<ref name="mexdam"/> Affected agricultureagricultural industries included corn, papayapapayas, tomatoes, chilischili peppers, and livestock, with damaged; fences, wind vanes, and other equipment were all damaged. The storm killed about 10% of the arearegion's bee coloniesbees, affecting 83,000&nbsp;colonies. The heavy rainfall from the storm damaged about {{convert|900|km2|mi2|abbr=on}} of grasslands, potentially disruptingthreatening the food supply of about 100,000&nbsp;cows.<ref name="gub">{{cite report|title=Mexico: El Presidente Fox encabezó una Reunión de Evaluación de las zonas afectadas por el Huracán Wilma|date=October 24, 2005|at=ReliefWeb|accessdate=March 13, 2020|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/mexico/mexico-el-presidente-fox-encabezó-una-reunión-de-evaluación-de-las-zonas-afectadas-por|language=Spanish}}</ref> Across the Yucatán Peninsula, the hurricane downeddestroyed abouta cumulative {{convert|1000000|acre|ha|abbr=on}} worth of treesforest.<ref name="erd">{{cite report|work=Episcopal Relief and Development|at=ReliefWeb|date=November 1, 2005|title=ERD aids communities in Mexico after Hurricane Wilma|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/mexico/erd-aids-communities-mexico-after-hurricane-wilma|accessdate=March 9, 2020}}</ref>
Across Mexico, Wilma killed eight people – seven in Quintana Roo, and one in Yucatán.<ref name="Xin">{{cite news|agency=[[Xinhua]] via [[Comtex]]|date=October 23, 2005|accessdate=March 18, 2020|title=Wilma kills 8 in southeast Mexico|at=ReliefWeb|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/mexico/wilma-kills-8-southeast-mexico}}</ref> In Playa del Carmen, two people died and another seven were injured when a gas tank exploded.<ref>{{cite news|agency=El Pais|date=October 22, 2005|title=El huracán Wilma pierde intensidad a su paso por la península de Yucatán|url=https://elpais.com/internacional/2005/10/22/actualidad/1129932001_850215.html|accessdate=March 18, 2020|language=Spanish}}</ref> One person died in Yucatán after being struck by a fallen tree branch.<ref>{{cite news|title=Three killed in Wilma’s Mexican blitz|date=October 23, 2005|newspaper=Lawrence Journal World|accessdate=March 18, 2020|url=https://www2.ljworld.com/news/2005/oct/23/three_killed_wilmas_mexican_blitz/}}</ref> Three people died on Cozumel island.<ref name="ocha6">{{cite report|work=U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs|at=ReliefWeb|accessdate=March 12, 2020|date=October 25, 2005|title=The Caribbean: Hurricane Wilma OCHA Situation Report No. 6|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/cuba/caribbean-hurricane-wilma-ocha-situation-report-no-6}}</ref> One person in Cancún was electrocuted while preparing for the storm.<ref name="ifrc1021">{{cite report|title=Caribbean, Central America, and Mexico: Hurricane Wilma – Information Bulletin n° 3|work=International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies|at=ReliefWeb|date=October 21, 2005|accessdate=March 12, 2020|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/belize/caribbean-central-america-and-mexico-hurricane-wilma-information-bulletin-n-3}}</ref> Another person died in Cancún because of glass from a broken window.<ref>{{cite news|title=Hurricane Wilma batters Mexican resorts, six dead |date=October 23, 2005|author=Noel Randewich|newspaper=The Star|accessdate=March 18, 2020|url=https://www.thestar.com.my/news/world/2005/10/23/hurricane-wilma-batters-mexican-resorts-six-dead}}</ref> Throughout Mexico, Wilma's damage was estimated at $4.8&nbsp;billion (MXN, US$442&nbsp;million). The hurricane resultedcaused inan additional $13.9&nbsp;billion (US$1.3&nbsp;billion) in lost economic output and earnings, 95% of which was related to lost tourism revenue.<ref name="mexdam"/> Wilma damaged 28,980&nbsp;houses along its path;.<ref name="mexdam"/> homesConcrete madehouses of cement survived the stormfared better than those constructed out of local materials.<ref name="sa"/> The storm damaged about 10,000&nbsp;power lines, causing power outages for about 300,000&nbsp;people.<ref name="elun"/> alongDamage withto transmission towers and communicationantennas antennas,disrupted communications networks.<ref name="mexdam"/> causing power outages for about 300,000&nbsp;people, as well as disruptions to phone networks. Damage to electrical systems totaled $397.5&nbsp;million (MXN, US$36.6&nbsp;million), mostly in Quintana Roo.<ref name="univer"/><ref name="sa"/><ref name="wv">{{cite report|work=World Vision|date=October 25, 2005|title=Hurricane Wilma devastates Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico|at=ReliefWeb|accessdate=March 12, 2020|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/mexico/hurricane-wilma-devastates-yucatan-peninsula-mexico}}</ref> Across the region, Wilma damaged 473&nbsp;schools,<ref name="mexdam"/> including about 60% of such institutions in Quintana Roo;. damageDamage to schools wasaccounted estimated atfor $156&nbsp;million (MXN, US$14.4&nbsp;million). Hospitalsof sustainedthe damagehurricane's tocost. medical equipmentHospitals, particularly in theCancún generaland hospitalsCozumel, ofsustained Cancúndamage andto Cozumelmedical equipment.<ref name="univer"/> High winds knockedblew down traffic signals, signs, and fences.<ref name="mexdam">{{cite report|title=Características e Impacto Socioeconómico de los Principales Desastres Ocurridos en la República Mexicana en el Año 2005|date=August 2006|language=Spanish|url=http://www.proteccioncivil.gob.mx/work/models/ProteccionCivil/Resource/375/1/images/no_7.pdf|format=PDF|publisher=Sistema Nacional de Protección Civil|accessdate=February 10, 2020}}</ref>
Damage was heaviest in Quintana Roo, estimatedamounting atto an estimated $4.506&nbsp;billion (MXN, US$415&nbsp;million); this made it the state's costliest recorded hurricane in the state. Across the state, Wilma destroyed 4,571&nbsp;houses and damaged another 18,179 to some degree.<ref name="mexdam"/> Wilma also damaged 98% of the hotels in Quintana Roo, which includes the resort towns of Cozumel, Cancún, and Playa del Carmen.<ref>{{cite journal|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=LoRNAQAAMAAJ&lpg=RA4-PA11&dq=%22hurricane%20wilma%22%20merida%20yucatan%20airport&pg=RA4-PA9#v=onepage&q&f=false|journal=State Magazine|date=February 2008|page=9-11|title=Storm Teams|author=Thu M. Nyugen}}</ref> The hurricane caused significant damage in Cozumel and Isla Mujeres, both located offshoreoff the east coast of the Yucatán Peninsula. Flooding on Cozumel reached {{convert|1|m|ft|abbr=on}} in some places.<ref name="mexdam"/> The Cozumel boardwalk was wrecked.<ref name="univer"/> OnWilma left parts of the Quintana Roo mainland, Wilma's passage left areas without power, water, and gas.<ref name="ocha5"/> The storm damaged businesses, gas stations, and warehouses.<ref name="univer"/> High waves damaged the foundation of a hotel in [[Puerto Morelos]], causing it toits partiallypartial collapse; it was later demolished after the hurricane.<ref name="univer"/> The hurricane caused significant flooding damage inthroughout the municipalities of [[Benito Juárez Municipality, Quintana Roo|Benito Juárez]] and [[Solidaridad Municipality|Solidaridad]] municipalities, which include Cancún and Playa del Carmen. Floodwaters on Cozumel reached {{convert|1|m|ft|abbr=on}} deep in spots.<ref name="mexdam"/>
[[File:Hurricane Wilma damage Cancun (59103773).jpg|left|thumb|Storm damage in Cancún|alt=Photograph of a damaged building and storm debris]]
In Cancún, about 300,000&nbsp;people in the city were left homeless, while another 700,000&nbsp;people sustained damage to their homes.<ref name="ocha6"/> The water level in Cancún reached the third storystoreys of some buildings due to {{convert|5|to|8|m|ft|abbr=on}} waves, in addition toatop the storm surge.<Ref name="sa">{{cite report|work=The Salvation Army|title=The Salvation Army in Mexico provides aid to victims of Hurricane Wilma|date=November 1, 2005|at=ReliefWeb|accessdate=March 12, 2020|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/mexico/salvation-army-mexico-provides-aid-victims-hurricane-wilma}}</ref><ref name="wv"/> About half of the buildings at [[Cancún International Airport]] were severely damaged. The runway accumulated debris but was otherwise undamaged.<ref name="univer"/> Most significant to the city's economy, Wilma destroyed or severely damaged 110&nbsp;hotels,<ref>{{cite news|title=Hurricane death toll rises in Florida as residents face cleanup|work=Deutsche Presse Agentur |at=ReliefWeb|date=October 25, 2005|accessdate=March 12, 2020|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/mexico/hurricane-death-toll-rises-florida-residents-face-cleanup}}</ref> mostly along Kukulkán Boulevard, which connects the line of hotels along the Nichupte Lagoon. The hotel damage was mostly material losses and generally not to the building's structure.<ref name="univer"/> Strong winds broke glass, tore awayoff roof tiles, and wrecked water tanks. The storm surge washed away the foundationfoundations of two hotels, forcing them to be demolished. The high waves damaged hotel lobbies near the shore at El Miguelito beach. AtThe sand at Playa Ballenas, thewas high watersentirely washed away the beach entirely, leaving behind the rocky base. HighPlaya wavesDelfines movedsuffered largesimilar rocks and washed away sand at Delfines beacheffects.<ref name="mexdam"/> High waters also damaged twoTwo ferry terminals in theCancún citywere damaged.<ref name="univer"/>
In Yucatán state, stormStorm damage was estimated at $295.3&nbsp;million (MXN, US$27.2&nbsp;million) in Yucatán. There, the hurricane damaged 6,230&nbsp;houses, towith some degree4,892 of whichthose 4,892being werecompletely destroyed.<ref name="mexdam"/> AboutMajor halfcauses of thisbuilding wasfailure housingwere damagesevere due to the floodsflooding and the lightflimsy construction materials of the homes. Flooding was worst in eastern Yucatán, which isthe low-lying andterrain susceptibleof toeastern floodingYucatán.<ref name="univer"/> The primary [[Mexican_Federal_Highway_180DMexican Federal Highway 180D#Mérida-Cancún|highway]] connecting Cancún and [[Mérida, Yucatán]] was impassible,<ref name="ocha7"/> and workers immediately began restoration work immediately after the storm passed.<ref name="elun"/> ThePublic access to the archaeological site [[Chichen Itza]] was closed followingwhile thecleanup stormwork forgot cleaningunderway.<ref name="elun"/> SchoolsRoof sustaineddamage roofto damageschools in San Felipe and [[Tizimín]], wreckingresulted in the destruction of furniture and powerelectrical systems inside. Flooding tore apartundermined roads and cut water systemsservice in Tizimín. HighRaging floodwaters damagedbattered bridges to [[Telchac Puerto]], Chabihau, and Santa Rosa. High winds wreckedheavily damaged the El Cuyo port lighthouse.<ref name="univer"/>