Effects of Hurricane Wilma in Mexico: Difference between revisions

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The '''effects of Hurricane Wilma in Mexico''' severely affected the tourism industry of the [[Yucatán Peninsula]] in October 2005. [[Hurricane Wilma]] first developed on October 15 in the [[Caribbean Sea]]. Four days later, it intensified into the strongest Atlantic hurricane on record, as measureddetermined by [[atmospheric pressure|barometric pressure]]. Wilma weakened as it moved slowly northwestward, eventually making [[landfall (meteorology)|landfall]] late on October 21 on the island of [[Cozumel]]. asAt the time, it was a Category 4 hurricane on the [[Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale|Saffir-Simpson scale]]. Early the next day, the hurricane made another landfall on the Mexican mainland near [[Puerto Morelos]]. Wilma exited the Yucatán Peninsula into the [[Gulf of Mexico]] on October 23, and a day later it struck [[Florida]].
The large and powerful hurricane dropped torrential rainfall across the northeastern Yucatán Peninsula and on nearby offshore islands. Over a 24-hour period, Wilma droppedproduced {{convert|1633.98|mm|in|abbr=on}} worth of rainfall, which was the greatgreatest 24 -hour accumulation ever recorded in the [[Western Hemisphere]]. Wilma lashed partsParts of the Yucatán Peninsula withexperienced tropical storm-force winds for nearnearly 50 hours. The hurricane produced Mexico's strongest wind gust ever recorded,on whenrecord: an [[anemometer]] recorded a reading of 212 km/h (132 mph) before the instrument failed. Wind gusts were estimated as high as {{convert|230|km/h|mph|abbr=on}}. The hurricane moved ashore with an estimated {{convert|15|ft|m|abbr=on|order=flip}} [[storm surge]], alongaccompanied withby {{convert|5|to|8|m|ft|abbr=on}} waves which reached the third storystories of some buildings. Wilma severely eroded the beaches of eastern Quintana Roo and also caused flooding in neighboring [[Yucatán (state)|Yucatán]] state.
Wilma contributed to eight deaths in Mexico – seven in Quintana Roo and one in Yucatán. The direct impacts of Hurricane Wilma directly inflicted about $4.8&nbsp;billion ([[Mexican peso|MXN]], [[United States dollar|US$]]442&nbsp;million){{#tag:ref|All damage totals listed first in [[Mexican dollar]]s, and converted to [[United States dollar]]s (US$) via the [[Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis]].<ref>{{cite web|publisher=Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis|work=Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (US)|title=Mexico / U.S. Foreign Exchange Rate|accessdate=May 7, 2020|url=https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/DEXMXUS}}</ref>|group="nb"}} worth of damage, mostly in Quintana Roo, where. itIt was the state's costliest natural disaster. Much of the damage was done to touristtourism areassectors of [[Cancún]] and other nearby resort areas. The hurricane's indirect costs were significantly higher due to its disruption of tourism revenue, estimated at $13.9&nbsp;billion (US$1.3&nbsp;billion). About 98% of the hotelslodging and resorts in Quintana Roo were damaged, including 110&nbsp;hotels damaged or destroyed in Cancún. Nationwide, Wilma destroyed 9,463&nbsp;houses and caused damage to 19,517&nbsp;other homesothers. In Cancún alone, the hurricane left 300,000&nbsp;people homeless.
==Background and preparations==
[[Hurricane Wilma]] developed on October&nbsp;15, 2005 in the [[Caribbean Sea]], as determinedascertained by the [[National Hurricane Center]] (NHC). Four days later, it strengthened into a Category&nbsp;5 hurricane on the [[Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale|Saffir-Simpson scale]], with the lowest recorded [[atmospheric pressure|barometric pressure]] of any Atlantic hurricane: [[53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron|reconnaissance aircraft]] recorded a minimum pressure of {{convert|882|mbar|inHg|abbr=on|sigfig=4}}. Wilma weakened as it drifted northwestward through the Caribbean over the next two days.<ref name="TCR"/> The hurricane was originally projected to transit the [[Yucatán Channel]] between Mexico and Cuba, but it maintained its northwest trajectory.<ref name="mexdam"/> Wilma made [[landfall (meteorology)|landfall]] late on October&nbsp;21 on the island of [[Cozumel]]. The NHC estimated the landfall intensity at {{Convert|927|mbar|inHg|abbr=on|sigfig=4}}, with [[List of Category 4 Atlantic hurricanes|Category&nbsp;4]] [[maximum sustained winds]] of 150&nbsp;mph (240&nbsp;km/h). Early on October&nbsp;22, Wilma made a second landfall on the [[Quintana Roo]] mainland near [[Puerto Morelos]]. It then drifted across the northeastern Yucatán Peninsula, emerging into the [[Gulf of Mexico]] on October&nbsp;23. The hurricane later moved to the northeast, striking [[Florida]] on October&nbsp;24. It accelerated northeastward across the Atlantic Ocean and became an [[extratropical cyclone]] on October&nbsp;26.<ref name="TCR"/>
[[File:Wilma in cozumel island-109920 m.jpg|left|thumb|The [[eye (cyclone)|eye]] of Hurricane Wilma moving over [[Cozumel]]|alt=Satellite image with Cozumel visible within the eye of Wilma]]
On October&nbsp;18, the Mexican government issued a [[tropical cyclone warnings and watches|hurricane watch]] for the eastern coastline of the [[Yucatán Peninsula]] from [[Punta Allen]] to [[Cabo Catoche]], including offshore islands. As the hurricane grew closer, these watches were upgraded to warnings and expanded from [[Chetumal]] in southern Quintana Roo to [[San Felipe Municipality, Yucatán|San Felipe, Yucatán]]; a tropical storm warning extended westward to [[Celestún]]. The warnings were discontinued on October&nbsp;23 as the hurricane moved into the Gulf of Mexico.<ref name="TCR">{{cite web|author1=Richard J. Pasch |author2=Eric S. Blake |author3=Hugh D. Cobb III |author4=David P. Roberts |url={{NHC TCR url|id=AL252005_Wilma}}|title=Hurricane Wilma Tropical Cyclone Report|date=January 12, 2006|publisher=[[National Hurricane Center]]|accessdate=May 7, 2010}}</ref> Mexico's national weather service – [[Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (Mexico)|Servicio Meteorológico Nacional]] – issued 88&nbsp;notices or bulletins related to Hurricane Wilma.<ref name="wmo"/> Officials declared a [[state of emergency]] in 23&nbsp;municipalities across the Yucatán,<ref name="ifrc1021"/> and placed Quintana Roo and Yucatán under a [[Tropical_cyclone_warnings_and_watches#Western_hemisphere|red alert]], the highest on its color-coded alert system. Neighboring [[Campeche]] was placed on orange alert; [[Tabasco]] and [[Veracruz]] were placed on green alert; and [[Chiapas]] was placed on blue alert, the lowest warning on the scale.<ref name="gub1021">{{cite report|work=Government of Mexico|title=Mexico: El Presidente Vicente Fox estará en contacto permanente para ser informado de la evolución del huracán, Rubén Aguilar, vocero de Presidencia|language=Spanish|date=October 21, 2005|at=ReliefWeb|accessdate=March 18, 2020|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/mexico/mexico-el-presidente-vicente-fox-estará-en-contacto-permanente-para-ser-informado-de}}</ref>
Hurricane Wilma affected parts of northeast Mexico that had been struck by [[Hurricane Stan]] just two weeks earlier, as well as [[Hurricane Emily (2005)|Hurricane Emily]] in July.<ref name="gub"/><ref name="mexdam"/> Ahead of Wilma's landfall, workers trimmed trees near power lines and placed notices on roads.<ref name="mexdam"/> About 75,000&nbsp;people in northeastern Mexico evacuated the path of the storm. Some 45,000&nbsp;individuals, many of them tourists, rode out the storm in 200&nbsp;emergency shelters.<ref name="ocha5">{{cite report|work=U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs|at=ReliefWeb|accessdate=March 12, 2020|date=October 24, 2005|title=The Caribbean: Hurricane Wilma OCHA Situation Report No. 5|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/cuba/caribbean-hurricane-wilma-ocha-situation-report-no-5}}</ref> Among the facilities serving as shelters were schools, clinics, and in one [[Maya peoples|Maya community]], a cave.<ref name="wv">{{cite report|work=World Vision|date=October 25, 2005|title=Hurricane Wilma devastates Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico|at=ReliefWeb|accessdate=March 12, 2020|url=https://reliefweb.int/report/mexico/hurricane-wilma-devastates-yucatan-peninsula-mexico}}</ref> About 300&nbsp;people had to be relocated when their shelter in Cancún flooded. Thousands of tourists fled the region before officials closed the international airports in Cancún and Cozumel.<ref>{{cite news|title=Huracán Wilma azota a balnearios de México y se acerca a Florida|date=October 20, 2005|language=Spanish|url=https://www.eluniverso.com/2005/10/21/0001/14/5936AD55B349445A9DEBB2E87CE3E1A5.html|accessdate=March 18, 2020|agency=Reuters}}</ref><ref name="wv"/> Cancún police ordered all residents to stay home during the storm.<ref name="ifrc1021"/> [[Los Premios MTV Latinoamérica]] – the MTV Video Music Awards Latinoamérica – were canceled due to the hurricane. The event easwas originally scheduled to occur in [[Playa del Carmen]] on October&nbsp;20.<ref>{{cite news|title=Cancelación definitiva de los Premios MTV Latinoamérica|date=November 16, 2005|language=Spanish|publisher=La Nacion|accessdate=March 18, 2020|url=https://www.lanacion.com.ar/espectaculos/cancelacion-definitiva-de-los-premios-mtv-latinoamerica-nid756808}}</ref> Schools closures in Quintana Roo, Yucatán, and Campeche lasted up to 15&nbsp;days in some areas.<ref name="univer">{{cite report|page=36|title=Evaluación de Daños en la Infraestructura de Quintana Roo y Yucatún Causados por el Huracán Wilma|language=Spanish|author=Orlando de Jesús Alva Gonzákes|publisher=National Autonomous University of Mexico|accessdate=March 18, 2020|year=2015|url=http://www.ptolomeo.unam.mx:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/}}</ref>