Yarkand River: Difference between revisions

55 bytes added ,  9 months ago
==Historical maps== Historical English-language maps including the Yarkand River: <gallery mode="packed" heights="160"> File:Tarimrivermap.png|Rivers of the Tarim Basin File:Chagatai Khanate (1490).png|Moghulistan (Chagatai Khanate), 1490 AD File:Map India and Pakistan 1-250,000 Tile NJ 43-15 Shimshal.jpg|Map including part of the Yarkand River (labeled as YĀRKAND RIVER) (AMS, 1955) </gallery>
(==Historical maps== Historical English-language maps including the Yarkand River: <gallery mode="packed" heights="160"> File:Tarimrivermap.png|Rivers of the Tarim Basin File:Chagatai Khanate (1490).png|Moghulistan (Chagatai Khanate), 1490 AD File:Map India and Pakistan 1-250,000 Tile NJ 43-15 Shimshal.jpg|Map including part of the Yarkand River (labeled as YĀRKAND RIVER) (AMS, 1955) </gallery>)
 
{{Chinese|s=叶尔羌河|t=葉爾羌河|p=Yè'ěrqiāng Hé|w=Yeh<sup>4</sup>-erh<sup>3</sup>-ch'iang<sup>1</sup> He<sup>2</sup>|mi={{IPAc-cmn|ye|4|er|3|q|iang|1|-|h|e|2}}|uig=يەكەن دەرياسى|uly=Yeken deryasi|uyy=Yəkən dəryasi|usy=Йəкəн дәряси}}
 
[[File:Tarimrivermap.png|thumb|right|300px|Rivers of the Tarim Basin]]
 
[[File:叶尔羌河 - Yarkand River - 2015.04 - panoramio (1).jpg|thumb|right|260px|Yarkand River]]
 
The '''Yarkand River''' (or '''Yarkent River''' is a [[river]] in the [[Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region]] of western [[People's Republic of China|China]], originating in the [[Karakoram]] range and flowing into the '''[[Tarim River]]''', with which it is sometimes identified. However, in modern times, the Yarkand river drains into the Shangyou Reservoir and exhausts its supply without reaching the Tarim river. The Yarkand River is approximately 1097&nbsp;km (600&nbsp;mi) in length, with an average discharge of {{convert|210|m3/s|cuft/s|abbr=on}}.
 
== History ==
[[File:Yarkand-calles-d01.jpg|thumb|left|260px|Yarkand (Shache)]]
The ancient [[Silk Road|Silk Route]] into South Asia followed the Yarkand River valley. From [[Aksu, Xinjiang|Aksu]], it went via [[Maralbexi County|Maral Bashi]] (Bachu) on the bank of the Yarkand River, to the city of [[Yarkant County|Yarkand]] (Shache). From Yarkand, the route crossed the [[Bolor-Tagh]] mountains through the river valleys of Yarkand and Tashkurgan to reach the town of [[Tashkurgan Town|Tashkurgan]]. From there, it crossed the [[Karakoram]] mountains through one of the western passes ([[Kilik Pass|Kilik]], [[Mintaka Pass|Mintaka]] or [[Khunjerab Pass|Khunjerab]]) to reach [[Gilgit]] in northern [[Kashmir]]. Then it went on to [[Gandhara]] (the vicinity of present day [[Peshawar]]).{{sfn|Harmatta|1996|pp=492-493}}<ref>{{citation |last=Bagchi |first=Prabodh Chandra |editor1=Bangwei Wang |editor2=Tansen Sen |title=India and China: Interactions through Buddhism and Diplomacy: A Collection of Essays by Professor Prabodh Chandra Bagchi |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=hrA1DgAAQBAJ&pg=PA186 |date=2011 |publisher=Anthem Press |isbn=978-0-85728-821-9 |pages=186–}}</ref> The Indian merchants from Gandhara introduced the [[Kharosthi]] script into the Tarim Basin, and the Buddhist monks followed in their wake, spreading Buddhism.{{sfn|Harmatta|1996|pp=425-426}} The Chinese Buddhist traveller [[Fa Xian]] is believed to have followed this route.
 
With the Arab conquest of [[Khurasan]] in 651 AD, the main Silk route to western Asia was interrupted, and the importance of the South Asian route increased. Gilgit as well as Baltistan find increased mention in the Chinese chronicles (under the names Great ''Po-lu'' and Little ''Po-lu'', from the old name [[Balawaristan|Bolor]]). China invaded Gilgit in 747 AD to secure its routes to Gandhara and prevent Tibetan influence. But the effects of the invasion appear to have been short-lived, as Turkic rule took hold in Gilgit.{{sfn|Litvinsky|1996|pp=374–375}}{{sfn|Dani|1998|p=222}}
 
[[File:Chagatai Khanate (1490).png|thumb|right|300px|Moghulistan (Chagatai Khanate), 1490 AD]]
{{clear left}}
It is possible that alternative trade routes developed after this time between Yarkand and [[Ladakh]] via the [[Karakash River|Karakash Valley]]. The region of [[Hunza District|Hunza]] adjoining Xinjiang, which contained the passes through the Karakoram range, began to split off from Gilgit as an independent state around 997, and internecine wars with Gilgit as well as neighbouring [[Nagar District|Nagar]] became frequent.{{sfn|Dani|1998|pp=223,&nbsp;224}}{{sfn|Pirumshoev|Dani|2003|pp=238,&nbsp;242}} The rising importance of the Ladakh route is illustrated by the raids into Ladakh conducted by [[Mirza Abu Bakr Dughlat]] who took control of Kashgaria in 1465. His successor, [[Sultan Said Khan]] launched a proper invasion of Ladakh and Kashmir in 1532, led by his general [[Mirza Haidar Dughlat]].{{sfn|Khan|Habib|2003|p=330}}
 
==Historical maps==
{{clear left}}
Historical English-language maps including the Yarkand River:
<gallery mode="packed" heights="160">
[[File:Tarimrivermap.png|thumb|right|300px|Rivers of the Tarim Basin]]
[[File:Chagatai Khanate (1490).png|thumb|right|300px|Moghulistan (Chagatai Khanate), 1490 AD]]
File:Map India and Pakistan 1-250,000 Tile NJ 43-15 Shimshal.jpg|Map including part of the Yarkand River (labeled as YĀRKAND RIVER) ([[Army Map Service|AMS]], 1955)
</gallery>
 
==References==