Bhagavad Gita: Difference between revisions

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The '''''Bhagavad Gita''''' ({{IPAc-en|ˌ|b|ʌ|ɡ|ə|v|ə|d|_|ˈ|ɡ|iː|t|ɑː|,_|-|t|ə}}; {{lang-sa|भगवद् गीता}}, [[IAST]]: ''{{IAST|bhagavad-gītā}}'', lit. "The Song of [[Bhagavan|God]]"),{{sfn|Davis|2014|p=2}} often referred to as '''the Gita''', is a 700-[[Sanskrit prosody|verse]] [[Sanskrit]] scripture that is part of the [[Hindu epic]] ''[[Mahabharata]]'' (chapters 23–40 of [[Bhishma Parva]]).
The ''Gita'' is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between [[Pandava]] prince [[Arjuna]] and his guide and charioteer [[Krishna]]. At the start of the [[Dharma]] [[War|Yudhha]] (righteous war) between [[Pandava]]s and [[Kaurava]]s, Arjuna is filled with [[Morality|moral]] [[dilemma]] and despair about the violence and death the war will cause in the battle against his own kin.<ref>{{Cite book|last=|first=|title=The Song Celestial, Or, Bhagavad-gîtâ (from the Mahâbhârata) Being a Discourse Between Arjuna, Prince of Kuru, and the Supreme Being Under the Form of Krishna|publisher=Roberts Bros|year=1885|pages=Book one the first, page 19}}</ref> He wonders if he should renounce and seeks Krishna's counsel, whose answers and discourse constitute the ''Bhagavad Gita''. Krishna counsels Arjuna to "fulfill his [[Kshatriya]] (warrior) duty to uphold the [[Dharma]]" through "selfless action".<ref group=web name="EB-BG"/>{{sfn|Easwaran|2007|pp=111–122}}{{refn|group=note|Krishna states that the body is impermanent and dies, never the immortal soul, the latter is either reborn or achieves ''[[moksha]]'' for those who have understood the true spiritual path he teaches in the ''Gita''.<ref group=web name="EB-BG"/>}} The Krishna–Arjuna dialogue cover a broad range of spiritual topics, touching upon ethical dilemmas and philosophical issues that go far beyond the war Arjuna faces. Krishna is also said as the first motivational speaker in human history. {{sfn|Davis|2014|p=2}}{{sfn|Eliot Deutsch|Rohit Dalvi|2004|pp=60–62}}{{sfn|Sargeant|2009|pp=x–xviii}}
Numerous commentaries have been written on the ''Bhagavad Gita'' with widely differing views on the essentials. [[Vedanta]] commentators read varying relations between Self and [[Brahman]] in the text: [[Advaita Vedanta]] sees the non-dualism of [[Ātman (Hinduism)|Atman]] (soul) and [[Brahman]] (universal soul) as its essence,<ref name="Deutsch 2004 page=97">{{harvnb|Eliot Deutsch|Rohit Dalvi|2004|page=97}}</ref> whereas [[Bhedabheda]] and [[Vishishtadvaita]] see Atman and Brahman as both different and non-different, while [[Dvaita Vedanta]] sees dualism of [[Atman (Hinduism)|Atman]] (soul) and [[Brahman]] as its essence. The setting of the ''Gita'' in a battlefield has been interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life.{{sfn|Sargeant|2009|pp=x–xviii}}<ref>{{cite book|author=Ronald Neufeldt|editor=Robert Neil Minor|title=Modern Indian Interpreters of the Bhagavad Gita |url= |publisher=State University of New York Press |isbn=978-1-4384-1325-9|pages=31–33}}</ref>{{sfn|M.V. Nadkarni|2016|pp=15}}