Juan Diego: Difference between revisions

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'''Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin''',{{efn|This is the official name of the Saint.<ref>[httphttps://www.vatican.va/news_services/liturgy/saints/ns_lit_doc_20020731_juan-diego_en.html Biographical Note] ''Vatican Information Service'', July 31, 2002.</ref> The indigenous name {{lang|nci|Cuauhtlatoatzin}} means "the eagle that talks", or "the talking eagle".<ref>John Paul II, [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/2002/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_20020731_canonization-mexico_en.html homily] at the canonization Mass, 31 July 2002.</ref>}} also known as '''Juan Diego''' (1474–1548), a native of [[Mexico]], is the first Roman Catholic indigenous saint from the [[Americas]].{{efn|[[Rose of Lima]] (1586–1617) was the first American saint (beatified 1667, canonized 1671); [[Martin de Porres]] (1579–1639) was the first mestizo American saint (beatified 1837, canonized 1962); and [[Kateri Tekakwitha]] (1656–1680), a Mohawk-Algonquin woman who lived in New York State was the first indigenous American to be beatified (in 1980; she was canonized in 2012).}} He is said to have been granted an [[Marian apparition|apparition]] of the [[Virgin Mary]] on four separate occasions in December 1531 at the hill of [[Tepeyac]], then a rural area but now within the borders of [[Mexico City]].
 
The [[Basilica of Guadalupe]], located at the foot of the hill of Tepeyac, claims to possess Juan Diego's mantle or cloak (known as a [[Tilmàtli|tilma]]) on which an image of the Virgin is said to have been impressed by a miracle as a pledge of the authenticity of the apparitions. These apparitions and the imparting of the miraculous image (together known as the Guadalupe event, {{lang-es|el acontecimiento Guadalupano}}) are the basis of the veneration of [[Our Lady of Guadalupe]], which is ubiquitous in Mexico, prevalent throughout the Spanish-speaking Americas, and increasingly widespread beyond.{{efn|See, for example, the remarks of Pope John Paul II in his 1997 Apostolic Exhortation, [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_exhortations/documents/hf_jp-ii_exh_22011999_ecclesia-in-america_en.html ''Ecclesia in America''] para. 11, regarding the veneration of Our Lady of Guadalupe as "Queen of all America", "Patroness of all America", and "Mother and Evangeliser of America"; ''cf.'' {{harvp|Sousa|Poole|Lockhart|1998|p=1}}. In May 2010, the church of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Makati, Manila, Philippines, was declared a national shrine by the bishops' conference of that country.<ref>[http://www.rcam.org/news/2010/archdiocesan_shrine_of_our_lady_of_guadalupe_declared_national_shrine_on_may31.html Archdiocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe declared National Shrine], website of Archdiocese of Manila.</ref>}} As a result, the Basilica of Guadalupe is now one of the world's major centre of pilgrimage for Roman Catholics, receiving 22 million visitors in 2010.<ref>[http://www.zenit.org/rssenglish-31230 Guadalupe Shrine Hosts 6M for Feastday Weekend] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120927020133/http://www.zenit.org/rssenglish-31230 |date=2012-09-27 }}, ''Zenit news agency'', December 13, 2010.</ref>{{efn|For comparison, in 2000, the year of the Great Jubilee, 25 million pilgrims were reported by the Rome Jubilee Agency,<ref>[https://www.zenit.org/article-232?l=english Pilgrims to Rome Break Records in Year 2000], ''Zenit'' news agency, January 1, 2001</ref> but in 2006 the city of Rome computed altogether 18 million visitors, many of whom were there for purely cultural reasons.<ref>[http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article1289890.ece Vatican puts a squeeze on visitors], ''The Times'' online, January 6, 2007.</ref> Eight million were expected at Lourdes in 2008 (the 150th anniversary of the apparitions).<ref>[http://www.zenit.org/article-20995?l=english Benedict XVI to Join Celebrations at Lourdes], ''Zenit'' news agency, November 13, 2007.</ref>}} Juan Diego was [[beatified]] in 1990 and [[canonized]] in 2002.<ref name="Saragoza">{{cite book |last1=Saragoza |first1=Alex |title=Mexico Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic |date=2012 |publisher=ABC-CLIO |isbn=978-0-313-34948-5 |page=95 |url=https://books.google.com/?id=v49ppkhgtjMC&pg=PA95&lpg=PA95&dq=Antonio+of+Tlaxcala+beatified#v=onepage&q=Antonio%20of%20Tlaxcala%20beatified&f=false |language=en}}</ref>
 
==Biography==
[[File:Codice1548_chico.jpg|thumb|right|250px|The [[Codex Escalada]] dated from the middle of the sixteenth century.]]
 
The modern movement for the [[canonization]] of Juan Diego (to be distinguished from the process for gaining official approval for the Guadalupe cult, which had begun in 1663 and was realized in 1754)<ref>{{harvp|Brading|2001|p=132}}</ref> can be said to have arisen in earnest in 1974 during celebrations marking the five hundredth anniversary of the traditional date of his birth,{{efn|The [[Cristero]] roots of the movement in the previous half century are traced in {{harvp|Brading|2001|pp=311—314, 331–335}}.}} but it was not until January 1984 that the then Archbishop of Mexico, Cardinal [[Ernesto Corripio Ahumada]], named a [[Postulator]] to supervise and coordinate the inquiry, and initiated the formal process for canonization.<ref>Cardinal Rivera, ''Carta pastoral'', nn. 22, 24</ref>{{efn|''cf.'' Chávez Sánchez, ''Camino a la canonización'', which reports that the first Postulator (Fr. Antonio Cairoli OFM) having died, Fr. Paolo Molinari SJ succeeded him in 1989. Both of these were postulators-general of the religious Orders to which they belonged (the Franciscans and Jesuits, respectively) and were resident in Rome. In 2001 Fr. Chávez Sánchez himself was appointed Postulator for the cause of canonization, succeeding Mgr. Oscar Sánchez Barba who had been appointed in 1999.}} The procedure for this first, or diocesan, stage of the canonization process had recently been reformed and simplified by order of [[Pope John Paul II]].<ref>The reform of the procedure was mandated by John Paul II in his Apostolic Constitution [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_jp-ii_apc_25011983_divinus-perfectionis-magister_en.html ''Divinus perfectionis Magister''] ("The Divine Teacher and Model of Perfection"), January 25, 1983, and was put into effect from February 7, 1983 pursuant to rules drawn up by the Congregation for the Causes of Saints: [httphttps://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/csaints/documents/rc_con_csaints_doc_07021983_norme_en.html New Laws for the Causes of Saints].</ref>
 
===Beatification===
 
===Canonization===
As not infrequently happens, the process for canonization in this case was subject to delays and obstacles of various kinds. In the instant case, certain interventions were initiated through unorthodox routes in early 1998 by a small group of ecclesiastics in Mexico (then or formerly attached to the [[Basilica of Guadalupe]]) pressing for a review of the sufficiency of the historical investigation.{{efn|The first intervention was by letter sent on February 4, 1998 by Carlos Warnholz, [[Guillermo Schulenburg]] and Esteban Martínez de la Serna to Archbishop (later Cardinal) [[Giovanni Battista Re]] then ''sostituto'' for General Affairs of the [[Secretariat of State (Vatican)|Secretariat of State]] which, in fact, has no competency over canonizations; this was followed by a letter dated March 9, 1998 to Cardinal Bovone, then pro-prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, signed by the same three Mexican ecclesiastics as also by the historians Fr. [[Stafford Poole]], Rafael Tena and Xavier Noguez; a third letter, dated October 5, 1998, was sent to Archbishop Re signed by the same signatories as those who had signed the letter of March 9, 1998. The texts of these letters are included as appendices to Olimón Nolasco.}} This review, which not infrequently occurs in cases of equipollent beatifications,<ref>See: [http://www.ewtn.com/library/MARY/40MARTYR.htm Canonization of 40 English and Welsh Martyrs], by Paolo Molinari, S.J., ''L'Osservatore Romano'', Weekly Edition in English, October 29, 1970; it is normally handled through the Historical-Hagiographical Office of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.</ref> was entrusted by the Congregation for the Causes of Saints (acting in concert with the Archdiocese of Mexico) to a special Historical Commission headed by the Mexican ecclesiastical historians Fidel González, Eduardo Chávez Sánchez, and José Guerrero. The results of the review were presented to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints on October 28, 1998 which unanimously approved them.<ref>Cardinal Rivera, ''Carta Pastoral'', nn.29, 35–37.</ref><ref>''cf''. Chávez Sánchez, ''Camino a la canonización''.</ref>{{efn|Baracs names the prominent Guadalupanist Fr. Xavier Escalada SJ (who had first published the [[Codex Escalada]] in 1995) and the Mexican historian and Nahuatl scholar Miguel León-Portilla (a prominent proponent of the argument for dating the ''Nican Mopohua'' to the 16th century) as also participating, with others, in the work of the Commission.}} In the following year, the fruit of the Commission's work was published in book form by González, Chávez Sánchez and Guerrero under the title ''Encuentro de la Virgen de Guadalupe y Juan Diego''. This served, however, only to intensify the protests of those who were attempting to delay or prevent the canonization, and the arguments over the quality of the scholarship displayed by the ''Encuentro'' were conducted first in private and then in public.{{efn|Further correspondence with Rome ensued, later leaked to the press and eventually published in full by (Fr. Manuel) Olimón Nolasco: letters of September 27, 1999 to [[Cardinal Sodano]], then Secretary of State, from the original three Mexican ecclesiastics who had initiated the correspondence; of May 14, 2000 to Archbishop (now Cardinal) [[Tarcisio Bertone]], then secretary of the [[Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith]] signed by those three again, as well as by the three historians who had co-signed the letter of March 9, 1998; and, finally, another letter to Sodano of December 4, 2001 from the same three Mexican ecclesiastics as well as from Fr. Olimón Nolasco, the main purpose of which was to criticize Cardinal Rivera for "demonizing" those who were opposed to the canonization. On all this correspondence, see Baracs.}} The main objection against the ''Encuentro'' was that it failed adequately to distinguish between the antiquity of the cult and the antiquity of the tradition of the apparitions; the argument on the other side was that every tradition has an initial oral stage where documentation will be lacking. The authenticity of the [[Codex Escalada]] and the dating of the ''[[Nican Mopohua]]'' to the 16th or 17th century have a material bearing on the duration of the oral stage.{{efn|For the polemic, see: González Fernández, Fidel, Eduardo Chávez Sánchez, José Luis Guerrero Rosado; Olimón Nolasco; and Poole (2005). Brading<ref>{{harvp|Brading|2001|pp=338–341, 348–360}}</ref> and Baracs offer dispassionate views of the controversy. For a sympathetic review in Spanish of ''Encuentro'', see Martínez Ferrer.}} Final approbation of the decree of canonization was signified in a [[Papal consistory|Consistory]] held on February 26, 2002 at which Pope John Paul II announced that the rite of canonization would take place in Mexico at the Basilica of Guadalupe on July 31, 2002,<ref>AAS 95 [2003] pp.801–803</ref> as indeed occurred.<ref>See John Paul II, [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/2002/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_20020731_canonization-mexico_en.html Homily] at the canonization Mass, July 31, 2002.</ref>
 
==Historicity debate==
 
===The Franciscan silence===
The second main period during which the sources are silent extends for the half century after 1556 when the then Franciscan provincial, fray Francisco de Bustamante, publicly rebuked Archbishop Montúfar for promoting the Guadalupe cult. In this period, three Franciscan friars (among others) were writing histories of New Spain and of the peoples (and their cultures) who either submitted to or were defeated by the Spanish [[Conquistadores]]. A fourth Franciscan friar, [[Toribio de Benavente Motolinia|Toribio de Benevente]] (known as Motolinía), who had completed his history as early as 1541, falls outside this period, but his work was primarily in the Tlaxcala-Puebla area.{{efn|Hence the attention he gives in Bk. III, cap.14 to the three martyr children of [[Tlaxcala]]: Cristobal, Antonio and Juan, beatified with Juan Diego in May 1990.<ref>[httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/1990/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_19900506_citta-del-messico_sp.html Homily of John Paul II] at the beatification, May 6, 1990.</ref>}} One explanation for the Franciscans' particular antagonism to the Marian cult at Tepeyac is that (as Torquemada asserts in his ''Monarquía indiana'', Bk.X, cap.28) it was they who had initiated it in the first place, before realising the risks involved.<ref name="Lafaye_238">{{harvp|Lafaye|1976|p=238}}</ref>{{efn|Franciscan acceptance of the cult as late as 1544 is implicit in the second Guadalupan miracle as related by Miguel Sánchez.<ref>{{harvp|Sousa|Poole|Lockhart|1998|pp=142f}}</ref>}} In due course this attitude was gradually relaxed, but not until some time after a change in spiritual direction in New Spain attributed to a confluence of factors including (i) the passing away of the first Franciscan pioneers with their distinct brand of evangelical millennarianism compounded of the ideas of [[Joachim de Fiore]] and [[Desiderius Erasmus]] (the last to die were Motolinía in 1569 and Andrés de Olmos in 1571), (ii) the arrival of [[Jesuits]] in 1572 (founded by [[Ignatius Loyola]] and approved as a religious order in 1540), and (iii) the assertion of the supremacy of the bishops over the Franciscans and the other mendicant Orders by the Third Mexican Council of 1585, thus signalling the end of jurisdictional arguments dating from the arrival of Zumárraga in Mexico in December 1528.<ref>{{harvp|Sousa|Poole|Lockhart|1998|pp=30–34, 242}}</ref><ref>{{harvp|Phelan|1970|loc=passim}}</ref> Other events largely affecting society and the life of the Church in New Spain in the second half of the 16th century cannot be ignored in this context: depopulation of the Indians through excessive forced labour and the great epidemics of 1545, 1576–1579 and 1595,<ref>See {{harvp|Lafaye|1976|pp=15f., 254}}; and {{harvp|Phelan|1970|loc=chapter 10}} on the epidemics.</ref> and the [[Council of Trent]], summoned in response to the pressure for reform, which sat in twenty-five sessions between 1545 and 1563 and which reasserted the basic elements of the Catholic faith and confirmed the continuing validity of certain forms of popular religiosity (including the cult of the saints).<ref>On the cult of the saints (including "the legitimate use of images") see ''Conc. Trid., Sess. XXV'', ''de invocatione, veneratione et reliquiis sanctorum, et sacris imaginibus'' in Denzinger Schönmetzer ''Enchiridion Symbolorum'' (edn. 32, 1963) §§1821–1825.</ref> Conflict over an evangelical style of Catholicism promoted by Desiderius Erasmus, which Zumárraga and the Franciscan pioneers favoured, was terminated by the Catholic Church's condemnation of Erasmus' works in the 1550s. The themes of Counter-reformation Catholicism were strenuously promoted by the Jesuits, who enthusiastically took up the cult of Guadalupe in Mexico.<ref>{{harvp|Brading|2001|pp=327f}}</ref><ref>For a discussion of Edmundo O'Gorman's argument in his ''Destierro des sombras'' (1986) which seemingly addresses this point.</ref>
 
The basis of the Franciscans' disquiet and even hostility to Guadalupe was their fear that the evangelization of the Indians had been superficial, that the Indians had retained some of their pre-Christian beliefs, and, in the worst case, that Christian baptism was a cloak for persisting in pre-Christian devotions.<ref name="Lafaye_238"/><ref>{{harvp|Phelan|1970|p=51}}</ref><ref>{{harvp|Poole|1995|loc=''e.g''., pp.62, 68, 150 etc.}}</ref> These concerns are to be found in what was said or written by leading Franciscans such as fray Francisco de Bustamante (involved in a dispute on this topic with Archbishop Montúfar in 1556, as mentioned above); fray [[Bernardino de Sahagún]] (whose ''Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España'' was completed in 1576/7 with an appendix on surviving superstitions in which he singles out Guadalupe as a prime focus of suspect devotions); fray [[Jerónimo de Mendieta]] (whose ''Historia eclesiástica indiana'' was written in the 1590s); and fray Juan de Torquemada who drew heavily on Mendieta's unpublished history in his own work known as the ''Monarquía indiana'' (completed in 1615 and published in Seville, Spain, that same year). There was no uniform approach to the problem and some Franciscans were less reticent than others. Bustamante publicly condemned the cult of [[Our Lady of Guadalupe]] outright precisely because it was centred on a painting (allegedly said to have been painted "yesterday" by an Indian) to which miraculous powers were attributed,<ref>{{harvp|Brading|2001|pp=268–275}}</ref> whereas Sahagún expressed deep reservations as to the Marian cult at Tepeyac without mentioning the cult image at all.<ref>{{harvp|Lafaye|1976|pp=216f}}</ref><ref>{{harvp|Brading|2001|pp=214f}}</ref><ref>{{harvp|Poole|1995|p=78}}</ref> Mendieta made no reference to the Guadalupe event although he paid particular attention to Marian and other apparitions and miraculous occurrences in Book IV of his history – none of which, however, had evolved into established cults centred on a cult object. Mendieta also drew attention to the Indians' subterfuge of concealing pre-Christian cult objects inside or behind Christian statues and crucifixes in order to mask the true focus of their devotion.<ref>Mendieta, ''Historia eclesiástica indiana'', Bk. IV, capp. 24–28 for Marian apparitions etc.; Bk. III, cap.23 for Indians insinuating pre-Christian cult objects into churches.</ref> Torquemada repeated, with variations, an established idea that churches had been deliberately erected to Christian saints at certain locations (Tepeyac among them) in order to channel pre-Christian devotions towards Christian cults.<ref>''Monarquía indiana'', Bk.X, cap.8, quoted at {{harvp|Poole|1995|pp=92f}}.</ref>
<blockquote>In the beginning when the Christian faith had just arrived here in the land that today is called New Spain, in many ways the heavenly lady, the consummate Virgin Saint Mary, cherished, aided and defended the local people so that they might entirely give themselves and adhere to the faith .&nbsp;. in order that they might invoke her fervently and trust in her fully, she saw fit to reveal herself for the first time to two [Indian] people here.</blockquote>
The continuing importance of this theme was emphasised in the years leading up to the canonization of Juan Diego. It received further impetus in the Pastoral Letter issued by Cardinal Rivera in February 2002 on the eve of the canonization, and was asserted by John Paul II in his homily at the canonization ceremony itself when he called Juan Diego "a model of evangelization perfectly inculturated" – an allusion to the implantation of the Catholic Church within indigenous culture through the medium of the Guadalupe event.<ref>John Paul II, [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/2002/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_20020731_canonization-mexico_en.html homily] at the canonization, July 31, 2002, §3; ''cf''. John Paul II, [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/1990/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_19900506_citta-del-messico_sp.html homily (in Spanish)] at beatification of Juan Diego and four others, May 6, 1990, s.5; in Card. Rivera's [http://www.vicariadepastoral.org.mx/juan_diego/j_d_c_indice.htm Carta Pastoral], February 26, 2002, the third and longest section (§§ 58–120) is entitled "Juan Diego, as evangelist".</ref>
 
===Reconciling two worlds===
===Indigenous rights===
[[File:Basílica de Nuestra Señora de Zapopan (Jalisco, Mexico) - statue, St. Juan Diego.jpg|thumb|Statue of Saint Juan Diego in Mexico]]
To the spiritual and social significance of Juan Diego within the Guadalupe event, there can be added a third aspect which has only recently begun to receive explicit recognition, although it is implicit in the two aspects already discussed: namely, the rights of indigenous people to have their cultural traditions and way of life honoured and protected against encroachment. All three themes were fully present in the homily of Pope John Paul II at the canonization of Juan Diego on July 31, 2002, but it was the third which found its most striking expression in his rallying call: "¡México necesita a sus indígenas y los indígenas necesitan a México!" (Mexico needs the indigenous people, the indigenous people need Mexico).<ref>John Paul II, [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/2002/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_20020731_canonization-mexico_en.html homily (in Spanish)] at the canonization of Blessed Juan Diego, July 31, 2002, §4</ref> In this regard, Juan Diego had previously been acclaimed at the beatification ceremony in 1990 as the representative of an entire people – all the indigenous who accepted the Christian Gospel in New Spain – and, indeed, as the "protector and advocate of the indigenous people".<ref>''idem'', [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/1990/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_19900506_citta-del-messico_sp.html homily (in Spanish)] at the beatification of Juan Diego, May 6, 1990, §5.</ref>
 
[[File:Mexico.SanJuanDiego.statue.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Statue of St. Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin Church of San Juan Bautista, Coyoacán, México DF.]]
In the process of industrial and economic development that was observable in many regions of the world after the Second World War, the rights of indigenous peoples to their land and to the unobstructed expression of their language, culture and traditions came under pressure or were, at best, ignored. Industrialization (led by the petroleum industry) made the problem as acute in Mexico as elsewhere. The Church had begun to warn about the erosion of indigenous cultures in the 1960s, but this was generally in the context of "the poor", "the under-privileged", and "ethnic minorities", often being tied to land reform.<ref>''e.g''. John XXIII, Enc. [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_xxiii/encyclicals/documents/hf_j-xxiii_enc_15051961_mater_en.html ''Mater et magistra''] (1961) Part 3, ''passim'' and Enc. [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_xxiii/encyclicals/documents/hf_j-xxiii_enc_11041963_pacem_en.html ''Pacem in Terris''] (1963), 91–97, ''cf''. 125; Second Vatican Council, Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, [httphttps://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_const_19651207_gaudium-et-spes_en.html ''Gaudium et spes''] (1965), nn.57f., 63–65, 69, 71; Paul VI, Enc. [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/paul_vi/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-vi_enc_26031967_populorum_en.html ''Populorum progressio''] (1967), 10, 72; [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/paul_vi/homilies/1968/documents/hf_p-vi_hom_19680823_sp.html homily (in Spanish)] at a Mass for Colombian rural communities, August 23, 1968</ref> The Latin American episcopate, at its Second and Third General Conferences held at Medellin, Colombia (November 1968) and at Puebla, Mexico (January 1979) respectively, made the transition from treating indigenous populations as people in need of special care and attention to recognising a duty to promote, and defend the dignity of, indigenous cultures.<ref>See [http://multimedios.org/docs/d000273/ The Medellin Document], under ''Conclusions'' at ''Introduction'', §2, and at ''Human promotion'' (Justice) §14, (Education) §3; and [http://multimedios.org/docs/d000363/p000007.htm#6-p0.1.2 The Puebla Document], at §19.</ref> Against this background, it was Pope John Paul II, starting with an address to the indigenous peoples of Mexico in 1979, who raised the recognition of indigenous rights to the level of a major theme distinct from poverty and land reform. The first time he linked Juan Diego to this theme, however, was not on his first Apostolic journey to Mexico in 1979, but in a homily at a Mass in Popayán, Colombia, on July 4, 1986. Numerous Papal journeys to Latin America in this period were marked by meetings with indigenous peoples at which this theme was presented and developed.<ref>See meeting with Mexican indians at [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/1979/january/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_19790129_messico-cuilapan-indios_en.html Cuilapan] (January 29, 1979); speech to Amazonian indians at [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/1980/july/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_19800710_indios-manaus_sp.html Manaus, Brasil] (July 10, 1980); speech to indigenous people, [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/1983/march/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_19830307_indigeni_sp.html Guatemala City] (March 7, 1983); speech at a meeting with indigenous people at the airport of [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/1985/january/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_19850131_indigeni_sp.html Latacunga, Ecuador] (January 31, 1985); speech to Amazonian indians at [Iquitos, Peru] (February 5, 1985); homily at a Mass with indigenous people at [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/1986/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_19860704_indigeni-cauca_sp.html Popayán, Colombia] (July 4, 1986); speech at a meeting with indians in the Mission of "Santa Teresita" in [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/1988/may/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_19880517_indios-mariscal_sp.html Mariscal Estigarribia, Paraguay] (May 17, 1988); message to the indigenous peoples of the American continent marking the [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/messages/pont_messages/1992/documents/hf_jp-ii_mes_19921012_indigeni-america_sp.html 5th centenary] of the beginning of the evangelization of the continent (October 12, 1992); speech to indigenous communities at the sanctuary of Our Lady of Izamal, [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/1993/august/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_19930811_izamal-indigeni_sp.html Yucatan], Mexico (August 11, 1993); homily at a Mass attended by indigenous populations at Xoclán-Muslay, [httphttps://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/1993/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_19930811_merida-indigeni_sp.html Mérida], Mexico (August 11, 1993).</ref>
 
Also at about this time, the attention of the world community (as manifested in the [[UN]]) began to focus on the same theme, similarly re-calibrating its concern for minorities into concern for the rights of indigenous peoples. In 1982 the Working Group on Indigenous Populations of the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights (then called Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities) was established by a decision of the United Nations Economic and Social Council, and in 1985 work began on drafting a declaration of rights (a process which lasted 22 years). In due course, 1993 was proclaimed the International Year of the World's Indigenous People. The following year, the United Nations General Assembly launched the International Decade of the World's Indigenous Peoples (1995–2004) and then, on September 13, 2007, it adopted a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.<ref>See [https://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/declaration.html Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples], UN General Assembly, September 23, 2007; a brief history of the process is here [https://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/history.html].</ref>
===Primary sources===
{{refbegin|32em}}
*''Acta Apostolicae Sedis'' (AAS) 82 [1990], 94 [2002], 95 [2003]; text in Latin only, available as download from [httphttps://www.vatican.va/archive/aas/index_en.htm Vatican website]
*Becerra Tanco, ''Felicidad de México'', 6th edn., México (1883) publ. under the title "Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe y origen de su milagrosa imagen", available as a download from [http://cdigital.dgb.uanl.mx/la/1080014956/1080014956.html Colección digital] Universidad autónoma de Nuevo León.
*Benevente, Toribio de, ''Historia de los indios de Nueva España'' (1541), ed. José Fernando Ramírez, Mexico (1858), available as a download from [http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/obra-visor/coleccion-de-documentos-para-la-historia-de-mexicotomo-primero--0/html/ cervantesvirtual] website.
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