Congress of Paris (1856): Difference between revisions

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A significant diplomatic victory was scored by tiny [[Kingdom of Sardinia|Piedmont]] that, although not being yet considered a "great" European power, was nevertheless granted a seat at the Congress by the French Emperor [[Napoleon III]], mostly for having sent an expeditionary corps of 18,000 men to fight against Russia along with France and Prussia, but also possibly because of the intrigues of the very attractive [[Virginia Oldoini|Countess of Castiglione]], who had caught the Emperor's attention. The Piedmontese foreign minister [[Camillo Benso di Cavour]] seized this opportunity to denounce Austrian political and military interference in the Italian peninsula that he said was stifling the wish of the Italian people to choose their own government.
== Results of the CongressAftermath ==
[[File:Black sea crimean war.jpg|thumb|350px|Picture of the Territoryterritory affected by the Congress. TheIn light green area, to the left, is the area of the Danubian principalitiesPrincipalities (Wallachia and Moldavia). TheIn light green line showsis the border of the territory of southern Bessarabia, which was transferred from Russia to [[Moldavia,]] between the [[Danube River]] and [[Moldavia]].]]
The Congress resulted in a pledge by all of the powers to jointly maintain "the integrity of the Ottoman Empire". It, alsothus guaranteedguaranteeing Turkey'sits independence.<ref name="Britannica"/>
Also, Russia gave up the left bank of the mouth of the Danube River, including part of [[Bessarabia]],<ref name="Congress"/> to [[Moldavia]], andas gavewell upas its claim to the special protection of Christians in the Ottoman Empire. Moldavia and [[Wallachia]], (which together laterwould becamebecome [[Romania]] in 1858), along with Serbia, were recognized as quasi-independent self-governing principalities under protection of the other European Powerspowers. The Ottoman sultan of Turkey agreed, in return, to help to improve the status of the Christian subjects in his empire.<ref name="Congress"/>
The territories of Russia and Turkeythe Ottoman Empire were restored to their prewar boundaries.<ref name="Congress"/> The [[Black Sea]] was neutralized and so that no warships were allowed to enter; however, but it was open to all other nations.<ref name="Congress"/> It also opened the [[Danube River]] for shipping from all nations.<ref name="Britannica"/>
Turkish historians still express dissatisfaction with this fact. By example: "Although Ottoman Empire was on the side of winners, the Porte also lost the right to have a navy in the Black Sea together with the Russia. Put differently, the Empire had become a part of the European Concert, but not an actor in the European balance of power. Thus it was not recognized as a great power that could claim compensation in case of territorial gain by another member of the system".<ref name="Candan Badem 1856 p.403">Candan Badem, The Ottoman Crimean War (1853-1856). Leiden-Boston.1970.p.403</ref>
The peace conditions of the Paris Congress collapsed withafter the defeat of France in the war1870-1871 with[[French-Prussian Prussia in 1870-71War]]. After the capitulationsurrender of the fortress of Metz, (after that,when France actually lost hope toof reverse the course ofwinning the war), Russia announced its refusal to comply with the terms of the Treaty of 1856treaty.
Russian Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire [[Alexander Gorchakov on October 31, 1870]] denounced the treaty's Black Sea clauses ofon theOctober Treaty31, of1870, Paris (1856).<ref>Thiswhich was documented by the 1871 Treaty of London (1871).</ref>
Some of the rules and agreements werewould alteredbe laterchanged by the [[Congress of Berlin]].<ref name="Congress"/>
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