Bhagavad Gita: Difference between revisions

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The ''Gita'' is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between [[Pandava]] prince [[Arjuna]] and his guide and charioteer [[Krishna]]. At the start of the [[Dharma]] [[War|Yudhha]] (righteous war) between [[Pandava]]s and [[Kaurava]]s, Arjuna is filled with [[Morality|moral]] [[dilemma]] and despair about the violence and death the war will cause for the war he'll battle against is his own kins.<ref>{{Cite book|last=|first=|title=The Song Celestial, Or, Bhagavad-gîtâ (from the Mahâbhârata) Being a Discourse Between Arjuna, Prince of India, and the Supreme Being Under the Form of Krishna|publisher=Roberts Bros|year=1885|pages=Book one the first, page 19}}</ref> He wonders if he should renounce and seeks Krishna's counsel, whose answers and discourse constitute the ''Bhagavad Gita''. Krishna counsels Arjuna to "fulfill his [[Kshatriya]] (warrior) duty to uphold the [[Dharma]]" through "selfless action".<ref group=web name="EB-BG"/>{{sfn|Easwaran|2007|pp=111–122}}{{refn|group=note|Krishna states that the body is impermanent and dies, never the immortal soul, the latter is either reborn or achieves ''[[moksha]]'' for those who have understood the true spiritual path he teaches in the ''Gita''.<ref group=web name="EB-BG"/>}} The Krishna–Arjuna dialogue cover a broad range of spiritual topics, touching upon ethical dilemmas and philosophical issues that go far beyond the war Arjuna faces.{{sfn|Davis|2014|p=2}}{{sfn|Eliot Deutsch|Rohit Dalvi|2004|pp=60–62}}{{sfn|Sargeant|2009|pp=x–xviii}}
 
Numerous [https://www.onlineintention.com/bhagavad-gita-quotes-on-life-and-knowledge/ commentaries related life, death and ultimate reality have been written on the ''Bhagavad Gita''] with widely differing views on the essentials. [[Vedanta]] commentators read varying relations between Self and [[Brahman]] in the text: [[Advaita Vedanta]] sees the non-dualism of [[Ātman (Hinduism)|Atman]] (soul) and [[Brahman]] (universal soul) as its essence,<ref name="Deutsch 2004 page=97">{{harvnb|Eliot Deutsch|Rohit Dalvi|2004|page=97}}</ref> whereas [[Bhedabheda]] and [[Vishishtadvaita]] see Atman and Brahman as both different and non-different, while [[Dvaita Vedanta]] sees dualism of [[Atman (Hinduism)|Atman]] (soul) and [[Brahman]] as its essence. The setting of the ''Gita'' in a battlefield has been interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life.{{sfn|Sargeant|2009|pp=x–xviii}}<ref>{{cite book|author=Ronald Neufeldt|editor=Robert Neil Minor|title=Modern Indian Interpreters of the Bhagavad Gita |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=qVmSnL23_xgC&pg=PA31 |publisher=State University of New York Press |isbn=978-1-4384-1325-9|pages=31–33}}</ref>{{sfn|M.V. Nadkarni|2016|pp=15}}
 
The ''Bhagavad Gita'' presents a synthesis{{sfn|Eliot Deutsch|Rohit Dalvi|2004|p=61}}{{sfn|Scheepers|2000}} of Hindu ideas about ''[[dharma]]'',{{sfn|Eliot Deutsch|Rohit Dalvi|2004|p=61}}{{sfn|Scheepers|2000}}{{sfn|Raju|1992|p=211}} [[Theism|theistic]] ''[[bhakti]]'',{{sfn|Eliot Deutsch|Rohit Dalvi|2004|pp=61–62}}{{sfn|Raju|1992|p=211}} and the [[Yoga|yogic]] ideals{{sfn|Scheepers|2000}} of [[moksha]].{{sfn|Scheepers|2000}} The text covers [[Jnana yoga|jnana]], [[bhakti yoga|bhakti]], [[Karma yoga|karma]], and [[Raja Yoga]] (spoken of in the 6th chapter){{sfn|Eliot Deutsch|Rohit Dalvi|2004|pp=61–62}} incorporating ideas from the [[Samkhya]]-[[Yoga]] philosophy.<ref group=web name="EB-BG" />{{refn|group=note|The Bhagavad Gita also integrates [[theism]] and [[transcendentalism]]<ref group=web name="EB-BG" /> or spiritual[[monism]],{{sfn|Raju|1992|p=211}} and identifies a God of personal characteristics with the [[Brahman]] of the [[Historical Vedic religion|Vedic tradition]].<ref group=web name="EB-BG" />}}