Bhagavad Gita: Difference between revisions

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[[File:Kurukshetra.jpg|right|thumb|upright=1.2|alt=An old torn paper with a painting depicting the Mahabharata war, with some verses recorded in Sanskrit.|A manuscript illustration of the battle of Kurukshetra, fought between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, recorded in the ''Mahabharata''.]]
Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, in contrast, dates it a bit earlier. He states that the ''Gita'' was always a part of the ''Mahabharata'', and dating the latter suffices in dating the ''Gita''.{{sfn|Upadhyaya|1998|pages=16–18}} On the basis of the estimated dates of ''Mahabharata'' as evidenced by exact quotes of it in the Buddhist literature by [[Asvaghosa]] (c. 100 CE), Upadhyaya states that the ''Mahabharata'', and therefore ''Gita'', must have been well known by then for a Buddhist to be quoting it.{{sfn|Upadhyaya|1998|pages=16–18}}{{refn|group=note|According to the Indologist and Sanskrit literature scholar [[Moriz Winternitz]], the founder of the early Buddhist [[Sautrāntika]] school named Kumaralata (1st-century CE) mentions both ''Mahabharata'' and ''Ramayana'', along with early Indian history on writing, art and painting, in his ''[[Sanskrit Buddhist literature|Kalpanamanditika]]'' text. Fragments of this early text have survived into the modern era.<ref>{{cite book|author=Moriz Winternitz|authorlink=Moriz Winternitz|title=A History of Indian Literature: Buddhist literature and Jaina literature|url= |year=1996|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-0265-0|pages=258–259}}</ref>}} This suggests a ''[[:wikt:terminus ante quem|terminus ante quem]]'' (latest date) of the ''Gita'' to be sometime prior to the 1st-century CE.{{sfn|Upadhyaya|1998|pages=16–18}} He cites similar quotes in the Dharmasutra texts, the ''[[Brahma sutras]]'', and other literature to conclude that the ''Bhagavad Gita'' was composed in the fifthfirst or fourthsecons century BCECE.{{sfn|Upadhyaya|1998|pages=17–19}}{{refn|group=note|The Indologist [[Étienne Lamotte]] used a similar analysis to conclude that the ''Gita'' in its current form likely underwent one redaction that occurred in the 3rd- or 2nd-century BCE.<ref>{{cite book|author=Étienne Lamotte|title=Notes sur la Bhagavadgita| publisher=Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner|year=1929|pages=126–127}}</ref>}}
According to Arthur Basham, the context of the ''Bhagavad Gita'' suggests that it was composed in an era when the [[Dharma-yuddha|ethics of war]] were being questioned and renunciation to monastic life was becoming popular.<ref name=basham1991p95/> Such an era emerged after the rise of [[Buddhism]] and [[Jainism]] in the 5th-century BCE, and particularly after the semi-legendary life of [[Ashoka]] in 3rd-century BCE. Thus, the first version of the ''Bhagavad Gita'' may have been composed in or after the 3rd-century BCE.<ref name=basham1991p95>{{cite book|author=Arthur Llewellyn Basham|title=The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism| url= |year =1991| publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-507349-2|pages=95–96}}</ref>
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