Bhagavad Gita: Difference between revisions

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| language = [[Sanskrit]]
The '''''Bhagavad Gita''''' ({{IPAc-en|ˌ|b|ʌ|ɡ|ə|v|ə|d|_|ˈ|ɡ|iː|t|ɑː|,_|-|t|ə}}; {{lang-sa|भगवद् गीता}}, [[IAST]]: ''{{IAST|bhagavad-gītā}}'', lit. "The Song of [[Bhagavan|God]]"),{{sfn|Davis|2014|p=2}} often referred to as '''the Gita''', is a 700-[[Sanskrit prosody|verse]] [[Sanskrit]] scripture that is part of the [[Hindu epic]] ''[[Mahabharata]]'' (chapters 23–40 of [[Bhishma Parva]]).
The ''Bhagavad Gita'' is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between [[Pandava]] prince [[Arjuna]] and his guide and charioteer [[Krishna]]. At the start of the [[Dharma]] [[War|Yudhha]] (righteous war) between Pandavas[[Pandava]]s and [[Kaurava]]s, Arjuna is filled with moral dilemma and despair about the violence and death the war will cause. He wonders if he should renounce and seeks Krishna's counsel, whose answers and discourse constitute the ''Bhagavad Gita''. Krishna counsels Arjuna to "fulfill his [[Kshatriya]] (warrior) duty to uphold the [[Dharma]]" through "selfless action".<ref group=web name="EB-BG"/>{{sfn|Easwaran|2007|pp=111–122}}{{refn|group=note|Krishna states that the body is impermanent and dies, never the immortal soul, the latter is either reborn or achieves ''[[moksha]]'' for those who have understood the true spiritual path he teaches in the ''Gita''.<ref group=web name="EB-BG"/>}} The Krishna–Arjuna dialogue cover a broad range of spiritual topics, touching upon ethical dilemmas and philosophical issues that go far beyond the war Arjuna faces.{{sfn|Davis|2014|p=2}}{{sfn|Eliot Deutsch|Rohit Dalvi|2004|pp=60–62}}{{sfn|Sargeant|2009|pp=x–xviii}}
Numerous commentaries have been written on the ''Bhagavad Gita'' with widely differing views on the essentials. [[Vedanta]] commentators read varying relations between Self and [[Brahman]] in the text: [[Advaita Vedanta]] sees the non-dualism of [[Ātman (Hinduism)|Atman]] (soul) and [[Brahman]] (universal soul) as its essence,<ref name="Deutsch 2004 page=97">{{harvnb|Eliot Deutsch|Rohit Dalvi|2004|page=97}}</ref> whereas [[Bhedabheda]] and [[Vishishtadvaita]] see Atman and Brahman as both different and non-different, while [[Dvaita Vedanta]] sees dualism of [[Atman (Hinduism)|Atman]] (soul) and [[Brahman]] as its essence. The setting of the ''Bhagavad Gita'' in a battlefield has been interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life.{{sfn|Sargeant|2009|pp=x–xviii}}<ref>{{cite book|author=Ronald Neufeldt|editor=Robert Neil Minor|title=Modern Indian Interpreters of the Bhagavad Gita |url= |publisher=State University of New York Press |isbn=978-1-4384-1325-9|pages=31–33}}</ref>{{sfn|M.V. Nadkarni|2016|pp=15}}
The ''Bhagavad Gita'' presents a synthesis{{sfn|Eliot Deutsch|Rohit Dalvi|2004|p=61}}{{sfn|Scheepers|2000}} of Hindu ideas about ''[[dharma]]'',{{sfn|Eliot Deutsch|Rohit Dalvi|2004|p=61}}{{sfn|Scheepers|2000}}{{sfn|Raju|1992|p=211}} [[Theism|theistic]] ''[[bhakti]]'',{{sfn|Eliot Deutsch|Rohit Dalvi|2004|pp=61–62}}{{sfn|Raju|1992|p=211}} and the [[Yoga|yogic]] ideals{{sfn|Scheepers|2000}} of [[moksha]].{{sfn|Scheepers|2000}} The text covers [[Jnana yoga|jnana]], [[bhakti yoga|bhakti]], [[Karma yoga|karma]], and [[Raja Yoga]] (spoken of in the 6th chapter){{sfn|Eliot Deutsch|Rohit Dalvi|2004|pp=61–62}} incorporating ideas from the [[Samkhya]]-[[Yoga]] philosophy.<ref group=web name="EB-BG" />{{refn|group=note|The Bhagavad Gita also integrates [[theism]] and [[transcendentalism]]<ref group=web name="EB-BG" /> or spiritual[[monism]],{{sfn|Raju|1992|p=211}} and identifies a God of personal characteristics with the [[Brahman]] of the [[Historical Vedic religion|Vedic tradition]].<ref group=web name="EB-BG" />}}
The ''Bhagavad Gita'' is the best known and most famous of Hindu texts,<ref name="Robinson2014viii"/> with a unique pan-Hindu influence.<ref name=buitenen7/><ref name="Neusner2009"/> ItsThe ''Gita''{{'}}s call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the [[Indian independence movement]] including [[Bal Gangadhar Tilak]] and [[Mahatma Gandhi]]; the latter referred to it as his "spiritual dictionary".<ref>{{Cite news|url=|title=Mahatma Gandhi {{!}} Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts|work=Encyclopædia Britannica|access-date=2017-05-16|language=en}}</ref>
{{Hindu scriptures |expanded=Itihasa}}