Bhagavad Gita: Difference between revisions

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=== Chapters ===
''Bhagavad Gita'' comprises 18 chapters (section 25 to 42)<ref>{{harvnb|Bose|1986|page=71}}</ref><ref group=web>{{cite web|title=Gita Introduction |url= |publisher=Bhagavad-Gita Trust 1998–2009 U.S. |accessdate=2 October 2011}}</ref> in the [[Bhishma Parva]] of the epic ''Mahabharata''. Because of differences in [[recension]]s, the verses of the ''Gita'' may be numbered in the full text of the ''Mahabharata'' as chapters 6.25–42 or as chapters 6.23–40.<ref group=web name="Bhandarkar"/> The number of verses in each chapter vary in some manuscripts of the ''Gita'' discovered on the Indian subcontinent. However, variant readings are relatively few in contrast to the numerous versions of the ''Mahabharata'' it is found embedded in, and the meaning is the same.<ref name=minor1982lli>{{harvnb|Minor|1982|pp= l–li, Quote: "The current text of the Bhagavad gita is well-preserved with relatively few variant readings and none quite serious. This is especially remarkable in the light of the numerous variants for the remainder of the Mahabharata, some of which are quite serious. Secondary insertions are found in individual manuscripts of the Gita, but these are clearly secondary. The number of stanzas in the Gita is 700, a number confirmed by Shankara, and possibly deliberately chosen in order to prevent interpolations."}}</ref> [ Listen to Bhagavad Gita all chapters] in ''English, Hindi, In Hindi with sanksrit slokas, Gujrati, French, Spanish, Marathi and Arabic''.
The original ''Bhagavad Gita'' has no chapter titles. Some Sanskrit editions that separate the ''Gita'' from the epic as an independent text, as well as translators, however, add chapter titles such as each chapter being a particular form of yoga.{{sfn|Maitra|2018|p=39}}<ref group=web name="Bhandarkar">see {{cite web |url= |title=The Mahabharata (Electronic text) |publisher=Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune |year=1999}}</ref> For example, [[Swami Chidbhavananda]] describes each of the eighteen chapters as a separate yoga because each chapter, like yoga, "trains the body and the mind". He labels the first chapter "Arjuna Vishada Yogam" or the "Yoga of Arjuna's Dejection".<ref>{{harvnb|Chidbhavananda|1997|page=33}}</ref> Sir [[Edwin Arnold]] titled this chapter in his 1885 translation as "The Distress of Arjuna".<ref name=EBG>{{Citation|last=translated by Sir [[Edwin Arnold]]|title=Bhagavadgita|year=1885|publisher=[[Dover Publications]] (1993 Reprint)|location=New York|isbn=0-486-27782-8|url=|edition=Unabridged}}</ref>{{refn|group=note|Some editions include the ''[[Gita Dhyanam]]'' consisting of 9 verses. The ''Gita Dhyanam'' is not a part of the original ''Bhagavad Gita'', but some modern era versions insert it as a prefix to the Gītā. The verses of the ''Gita Dhyanam'' (also called ''Gītā Dhyāna'' or ''Dhyāna Ślokas'') offer salutations to a variety of sacred scriptures, figures, and entities, characterise the relationship of the Gītā to the [[Upanishads]], and affirm the power of divine assistance.<ref name=chinmaya98>{{harvnb|Chinmayananda|1998|page=3}}</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Ranganathananda|2000|pages=15–25}}</ref>}}