Juan Diego: Difference between revisions

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'''Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin''',{{efn|This is the official name of the Saint.<ref>[http://www.vatican.va/news_services/liturgy/saints/ns_lit_doc_20020731_juan-diego_en.html Biographical Note] ''Vatican Information Service'', July 31, 2002.</ref> The indigenous name {{lang|nci|Cuauhtlatoatzin}} means "the eagle that talks", or "the talking eagle".<ref>John Paul II, [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/2002/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_20020731_canonization-mexico_en.html homily] at the canonization Mass, 31 July 2002.</ref>}} also known as '''Juan Diego''' (1474–1548), a native of [[Mexico]], is the first Roman Catholic indigenous saint from the [[Americas]].{{efn|[[Rose of Lima]] (1586–1617) was the first American saint (beatified 1667, canonized 1671); [[Martin de Porres]] (1579–1639) was the first mestizo American saint (beatified 1837, canonized 1962); and [[Kateri Tekakwitha]] (1656–1680), a Mohawk-Algonquin woman who lived in New York State was the first indigenous American to be beatified (in 1980; she was canonized in 2012).}} He is said to have been granted an [[Marian apparition|apparition]] of the [[Virgin Mary]] on four separate occasions in December 1531 at the hill of [[Tepeyac]], then a rural area but now within the borders of [[Mexico City]].
The [[Basilica of Guadalupe]], located at the foot of the hill of Tepeyac, claims to possess Juan Diego's mantle or cloak (known as a [[Tilmàtli|tilma]]) on which an image of the Virgin is said to have been impressed by a miracle as a pledge of the authenticity of the apparitions. These apparitions and the imparting of the miraculous image (together known as the Guadalupe event, {{lang-es|el acontecimiento Guadalupano}}) are the basis of the veneration of [[Our Lady of Guadalupe]], which is ubiquitous in Mexico, prevalent throughout the Spanish-speaking Americas, and increasingly widespread beyond.{{efn|See, for example, the remarks of Pope John Paul II in his 1997 Apostolic Exhortation, [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_exhortations/documents/hf_jp-ii_exh_22011999_ecclesia-in-america_en.html ''Ecclesia in America''] para. 11, regarding the veneration of Our Lady of Guadalupe as "Queen of all America", "Patroness of all America", and "Mother and Evangeliser of America"; ''cf.'' {{harvp|Sousa|Poole|Lockhart|1998|p=1}}. In May 2010, the church of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Makati, Manila, Philippines, was declared a national shrine by the bishops' conference of that country.<ref>[http://www.rcam.org/news/2010/archdiocesan_shrine_of_our_lady_of_guadalupe_declared_national_shrine_on_may31.html Archdiocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe declared National Shrine], website of Archdiocese of Manila.</ref>}} As a result, the Basilica of Guadalupe is now one of the world's major centre of pilgrimage for Roman Catholics, receiving 22 million visitors in 2010.<ref>[http://www.zenit.org/rssenglish-31230 Guadalupe Shrine Hosts 6M for Feastday Weekend] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120927020133/http://www.zenit.org/rssenglish-31230 |date=2012-09-27 }}, ''Zenit news agency'', December 13, 2010.</ref>{{efn|For comparison, in 2000, the year of the Great Jubilee, 25 million pilgrims were reported by the Rome Jubilee Agency,<ref>[https://www.zenit.org/article-232?l=english Pilgrims to Rome Break Records in Year 2000], ''Zenit'' news agency, January 1, 2001</ref> but in 2006 the city of Rome computed altogether 18 million visitors, many of whom were there for purely cultural reasons.<ref>[http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article1289890.ece Vatican puts a squeeze on visitors], ''The Times'' online, January 6, 2007.</ref> Eight million were expected at Lourdes in 2008 (the 150th anniversary of the apparitions).<ref>[http://www.zenit.org/article-20995?l=english Benedict XVI to Join Celebrations at Lourdes], ''Zenit'' news agency, November 13, 2007.</ref>}} Juan Diego was [[beatified]] in 1990 and [[canonized]] in 2002.<ref name="Saragoza">{{cite book |last1=Saragoza |first1=Alex |title=Mexico Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic |date=2012 |publisher=ABC-CLIO |isbn=978-0-313-34948-5 |page=95 |url=https://books.google.com/?id=v49ppkhgtjMC&pg=PA95&lpg=PA95&dq=Antonio+of+Tlaxcala+beatified#v=onepage&q=Antonio%20of%20Tlaxcala%20beatified&f=false |language=en}}</ref>