Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Difference between revisions

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[[Image:Chambers Cyclopaedia 1728.jpg|thumb|300px|[[Ephraim Chambers]] ''Cyclopædia'' (1728).]]
[[Image:Table of Trigonometry, Cyclopaedia, Volume 2.jpg|thumb|right|Table of [[Trigonometry]], 1728 ''Cyclopædia''.]]
'''''Cyclopædia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences''''' (two volumes in [[Book size|folio]]) was an [[encyclopedia]] published by [[Ephraim Chambers]] in [[London]] in 1728, and reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century. The ''Cyclopaedia'' was one of the first general encyclopedias to be produced in English. The 1728 subtitle gives a summary of the aims of the author:
The 1728 subtitle gives a summary of the aims of the author:
 
{{quote|''Cyclopædia, or, an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'': Containing the Definitions of the Terms, and Accounts of the Things Signify'd Thereby, in the Several Arts, both Liberal and Mechanical, and the Several Sciences, Human and Divine: the Figures, Kinds, Properties, Productions, Preparations, and Uses, of Things Natural and Artificial; the Rise, Progress, and State of Things Ecclesiastical, Civil, Military, and Commercial: with the Several Systems, Sects, Opinions, etc; among Philosophers, Divines, Mathematicians, Physicians, Antiquaries, Criticks, etc.: The Whole Intended as a Course of Ancient and Modern Learning.}}
==Precursors ==
 
Among the precursors of Chambers's ''Cyclopaedia'' was [[John Harris (writer)|John Harris]]'s ''[[Lexicon Technicum]]'', of 1704 (later editions from 1708 through 1744). By its title and content, it was "An Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Explaining not only the Terms of Art, but the Arts Themselves." While Harris's work is often classified as a technical dictionary, it also took material from [[Isaac Newton|Newton]] and [[Edmond Halley|Halley]], among others.{{sfn|Collison | Preece|2015}}
 
 
*Bradshaw, Lael Ely. "Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopedia." ''Notable Encyclopedias of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Nine Predecessors of the Encyclopédie''. Ed. Frank Kafker. Oxford: The Voltaire Foundation, 1981. 123–137. ({{ISBN|0-7294-0256-8}}).
*Collison, Robert. ''Encyclopædias: Their History Throughout the Ages''. New York: Hafner, 1966. {{OCLC|368968}}
*Kafker, Frank. A. ''Notable Encyclopedias of the Late Eighteenth Century: Eleven Successors of the Encyclopédie''. Oxford : Voltaire Foundation at the Taylor Institution, 1994.
*Kolb, Gwin J. and James H. Sledd. “Johnson’s ‘Dictionary’ and Lexicographical Tradition.” ''Modern Philology'' 50.3 (Feb. 1953): 171–194.
*Mack, Ruth. “The Historicity of Johnson’s Lexicographer.” ''Representations'' 76 (Fall 2001): 61–87.
*Shorr, Phillip. ''Science and Superstition in the Eighteenth Century: A Study of the Treatment of Science in Two Encyclopedias of 1725–1750''. New York: Columbia, 1932. {{OCLC|3633346}}
*Walsh, S. Patraig. "Cyclopaedia." ''Anglo-American General Encyclopedias: A Historical Bibliography, 1703–1967''. New York: R.R. Bowker, 1968. 38–39. {{OCLC|577541}}