Texas blues: Difference between revisions

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{{Infobox Music genre
| name = Texas blues
| color = white
| bgcolor = #0000E1
| stylistic_origins = {{hlist|[[Blues]]|[[Countrycountry Bluesblues]]|[[Swingswing Musicmusic|Swingswing]]|[[Jazzjazz]]}}
| cultural_origins = {{Circa}} 1920s, [[Texas]], U.S.
| instruments = {{hlist|[[Electric Guitarguitar]]|[[Bassbass Guitarguitar]]|[[Drumsdrums]]|[[Keyboardkeyboard Instrumentinstrument|Keyboardkeyboard]]}}
| popularity =
| derivatives =
| subgenres =
'''Texas blues''' is a form of [[blues]] music from [[Texas]]. characterizedAs bya [[jazz]],regional [[ragtime]]style, [[bebop]],its original form [[Gospelwas music|gospelcharacterized music,by [[jazz]] and [[Swingswing music|swing]] influences. Texas blues, at its purest form, is nothing more than an individual's expressiveness of communication through voice. Later examples are often closer to [[blues rock]]<nowiki/> and [[Southern rock]].
| pos = right
'''Texas blues''' began to appear in the early 1900s among African Americans who worked in oilfields, ranches, and lumber camps. The twelve-bar, three-line rules areIn the most fastened and obvious form1920s, however, not all Texas blues music obeys this pattern. This style of blues was often sung with a clearer, higher voice than other blues genres, sounding more sophisticated, with a open, lean, and long-lined sound. [[Blind Lemon Jefferson]], born in 1897 on a farm in Couchman, Texas, innovated histhe style by using jazz-like improvisation, and single string accompaniment, relaxed vocals, and light textures. Overon a three-year period beginning in 1926,guitar; Jefferson's soldinfluence closedefined tothe onefield hundredand sidesinspired forlater [[Paramount Music|Paramount music]], outselling any other African American male country performer during that timeperformers.<ref>{{Cite book|title=The History of The Blues|last=Davis|first=Francis|publisher=New York: Mojo Working Productions|year=1995|isbn=|location=|pages=94-96}}</ref>During the [[Great Depression]] in the 1930s, many bluesmen moved to cities, including [[Galveston]], [[San Antonio]], [[Houston]], and [[Dallas]]. It was from these urban centers that a new wave of popular performers began to appearappeared, including slide guitarist and gospel singer [[Blind Willie Johnson]]. Future bluesmen, such as, [[Lightnin' Hopkins]], [[Lil' Son Jackson]], and [[T-Bone Walker]] were influenced by these developments.<ref name=Allmusicblues694-5/> [[Robert Johnson]]'s two recording sessions both took place in Texas, although he was from [[Mississippi]].
Texas bluesman [[T-Bone Walker]] was born and raised in Texas. He eventually relocated to [[Los Angeles]] duringto the 1940s where he recorded some ofrecord his most influential work in the 1940s.<ref name=Allmusicblues694-5/> His swing-influenced backing and lead guitar sound became an prominentinfluential part of the [[electric blues]]. Walker idolized Blind Lemon Jefferson and his "right way to play blues" use of arpeggios. <ref>{{Cite book|titlename=The Blues Came to Texas|last=Govenar, Kip|first=Lornell, Alan|publisher=Texas: Texas A&M University Press|year=2019|isbn=|location=|pages=382Allmusicblues694-83}}<5/ref>His style of rhythm and blues had significant consequences on future guitarists, including [[B.B. King|BB King]], Blues Boy Hubbard, [[T. D. Bell|T.D. Bell]], [[Zuzu Bollin|ZuZu Bollin]], Clarence Green, [[Roy Gaines]], [[Johnny Copeland]], [[Pete Mayes]], [[Joe "Guitar" Hughes|Joe Hughes]], as well as their White successors, [[Stevie Ray Vaughan]], [[Jimmie Vaughan]], [[Johnny Winter]], [[Anson Funderburgh]], [[Duke Robillard]], [[Derek Trucks]], and [[Ronnie Earle|Ronnei Earl]].<ref>{{Cite book|title=The Early Years of Rhythm & Blues|last=Govenar|first=Alan|publisher=Houston, Texas: Rice University Press|year=1990|isbn=|location=|pages=3-6}}</ref> It was T-Bone Walker, B.B. King once said, who “really started me to want to play the blues. I can still hear T-Bone in my mind today, from that first record I heard, "Stormy‘Stormy Monday." He was the first electric guitar player I heard on record. He made me so that I knew I just had to go out and get an electric guitar.”<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.guitarplayer.com/players/bb-king-names-his-10-favorite-guitarists-video|title=B.B. King Names His 10 Favorite Guitarist|last=Crockett|first=Jim|date=March 1975|website=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=}}</ref> WalkerHe also had an overwhelming effect oninfluenced [[Goree Carter]], whose "[[:File:Goree Carter - Rock Awhile.ogg|Rock Awhile]]" (1949) featured an [[Distortion (music)|over-driven]] [[electric guitar]] style and has been cited as a strong contender for the "[[first rock and roll record]]" title.<ref name="palmer19">[[Robert Palmer (writer)|Robert Palmer]], ''Church of the Sonic Guitar'', pp. 13–38 in Anthony DeCurtis, ''Present Tense'', [[Duke University Press]], 1992, p. 19. {{ISBN|0-8223-1265-4}}.</ref>
The Texasstate's R&B recording industry was based in [[Houston]] with labels, such as [[Peacock Records|Duke/Peacock]], which in the 1950s provided a base for artists who would later pursue the electric Texas blues sound, including [[Johnny Copeland]] and [[Albert Collins]].<ref name=Allmusicblues694-5/> [[Freddie King]], a major influence on electric blues, was born in Texas, but moved to Chicago as a teenager.<ref name=Allmusicblues694-5/> His instrumental number "[[Hide Away]]" (1961), was emulated by [[British blues]] artists, including [[Eric Clapton]].<ref>M. By the 1960sRoberty and 1970s, White audiences began to take interest in rhythm and blues in East Austin, TexasC. Clubs around AustinCharlesworth, like [[Vulcan Gas Company|Vulvan Gas Company]], [[Armadillo World Headquarters]], [[Clifford Antone|Antone's]],'The andcomplete Soapguide Creek Saloon, wereto the main attractions for Whites to enjoy blues music around the area. It was Antone's that was considered one of theEric most prestigious blues clubs in Austin. Over the years, AntoneClapton's featured some of the United State's most(Omnibus impressive blues artists: [[Bobby Bland]]Press, [[Barbara Lynn]], [[Albert Collins]], [[Jimmy Rogers]], [[Muddy Waters]], [[Howlin' Wolf]], [[Hubert Sumlin]], [[James Cotton]], [[Pinetop Perkins]], [[Stevie Ray Vaughan]], Grey Ghost, and many more. Antone's created an environment where musicians, Black or White, could jam together, and learn from one another. During the 1980s, Clifford Antone opened a record label and had great success recording blues musicians from around the United States. His success began to cultivate more Austin talent, including [[Doyle Bramhall|Doyle Bramball]], [[Doyle Bramhall II|Doyle Bramball II]], Omar and The Howlers, [[Steve James (blues musician1995)|Steve James]], [[Sue Foley]], [[Kim Wilson]], and [[Lou Ann Barton]]p. During this time, Antone continued to record bluesmen from Chicago, San Antonio, Houston, and Louisiana11.<ref>{{Cite book|title=Texas Blues: The Rise of a Contemporary Sound|last=Govenar|first=Alan|publisher=Texas: Texas A&M University Press|year=2008|isbn=|location=|pages=485-89}}</ref>
ByIn the late 1970s1960s and 1980s,early 1970s the Texas electric blues scene began to flourish, influenced by [[country music]] and [[Blues rock|blues rock,]], beganparticularly toin flourishthe clubs of [[Austin, Texas|Austin]]. ThisThe diverse style often featured instruments, such as keyboards and horns, with emphasis on guitar soloing.<ref Thename=Allmusicblues694-5>V. most prominent artists to emerge in these eras whereBogdanov, [[JohnnyC. Winter]]Woodstra, [[EdgarS. Winter]],T. [[Jimmie Vaughan]] who formed [[The Fabulous Thunderbirds|The Fabulous Thuderbirds]]Erlewine, [[ZZ''All Top]],music andguide [[Stevieto Raythe Vaughan]].blues: Itthe wasdefinitive Stevie Ray Vaughan who broke throughguide to mainstream success during the 1980sblues'' with(Backbeat hisBooks, virtuoso3rd guitar playingedn., Stevie2003), Raypp. Vaughan694–5.</ref> in now considered one of theThe most influentialprominent andartists greatestto guitaremerge playersin ofthis allera time, changingwere the way people play thebrothers [[FenderJohnny StratocasterWinter|Fender StratocastorJohnny]] guitar.and Stevie's[[Edgar guitarWinter]], playingwho guidedcombined bluestraditional rockand icons,suchsouthern asstyles.<ref [[Ianname=Allmusicblues694-5/> MooreIn (musician)|Ianthe Moore]]1970s, [[KennyJimmie Wayne ShepherdVaughan]], formed [[JohnnyThe Lange|JohnnyFabulous LangThunderbirds]], [[Chrisand Duarte]],in [[Joethe Ely]],1980s Widgeonhis Holland,brother [[EricStevie Ray JohnsonVaughan]], [[Albroke Dithrough Meola|Alto DiMeola]],mainstream Vincesuccess Converse,with [[Jakehis Andrews]],virtuoso [[Garyguitar Clarkplaying, Jr.|Garyas Clark Jr,]]did [[JohnZZ MayerTop]], Lancewith Lopez,their [[Indigenousbrand (band)|Matoof Nanji]],Southern Jesserock.<ref>E. M. DaveyKomara, and''Encyclopedia rockof titanthe [[Joeblues'' Bonamassa]](Routledge, plus2006), manyp. more50.</ref>
==See also==
*[[Texas Roadhouse Music]]
*[[List of Texas blues musicians]]