Congress of Paris (1856): Difference between revisions

Typo fixing, replaced: had became → had become
(Typo fixing, replaced: had became → had become)
The great powers in Europe at the time were: [[France]], [[Great Britain]], the [[Ottoman Empire]], [[Sardinia]], [[Russia]], [[Austria]], and [[Prussia]].<ref name="Britannica"/><ref name=Congress>"Congress of Paris". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008</ref>
Regarding the Ottoman Empire, this can only be considered conditionally. Even the Turkish historians agree with this statement. For example, .<ref name="Candan Badem 1856 p.403">Candan Badem, The Ottoman Crimean War (1853-1856). Leiden-Boston.1970.p.403</ref>.
They assembled soon after 1 February 1856, when Russia accepted the first set of peace terms after Austria threatened to enter the war on the side of the Allies. It is also notable that the meeting took place in Paris, just at the conclusion of the [[Exposition Universelle (1855)|1855 Universal Expo]] <ref name="Good"/>
Also, Russia gave up the left bank of the mouth of the Danube River, including part of [[Bessarabia]]<ref name="Congress"/> to [[Moldavia]] and gave up its claim to the special protection of Christians in the Ottoman Empire. Moldavia and [[Wallachia]] (which together later became [[Romania]] in 1858) along with Serbia were recognized as quasi-independent self-governing principalities under protection of the other European Powers. The sultan of Turkey agreed, in return, to help improve the status of the Christian subjects in his empire.<ref name="Congress"/>
The territories of Russia and Turkey were restored to their prewar boundaries.<ref name="Congress"/> The [[Black Sea]] was neutralized so that no warships were allowed to enter; however, it was open to all other nations.<ref name="Congress"/> It also opened the [[Danube River]] for shipping from all nations.<ref name="Britannica"/>
Turkish historians still express dissatisfaction with this fact. By example: "Although Ottoman Empire was on the side of winners, the Porte also lost the right to have a navy in the Black Sea together with the Russia. Put differently, the Empire had becamebecome a part of the European Concert, but not an actor in the European balance of power. Thus it was not recognized as a great power that could claim compensation in case of territorial gain by another member of the system".<ref> name="Candan Badem, The Ottoman Crimean War (1853-1856). Leiden-Boston.1970.p.403<"/ref>.
The peace conditions of the Paris Congress collapsed with the defeat of France in the war with Prussia in 1870-71. After the capitulation of the fortress of Metz (after that, France actually lost hope to reverse the course of the war), Russia announced its refusal to comply with the terms of the Treaty of 1856.
Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire Alexander Gorchakov on October 31, 1870 denounced the Black Sea clauses of the Treaty of Paris (1856). <ref>This was documented by Treaty of London (1871).</ref>
Some of the rules and agreements were altered later by the [[Congress of Berlin]].<ref name="Congress"/>