PubMed Central: Difference between revisions

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'''PubMed Central''' ('''PMC''') is a free [[digital repository]] that archives [[open access|publicly accessible]] full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the [[biomedical]] and [[life sciences]] journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the [[National Center for Biotechnology Information]] (NCBI), PubMed Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, [[medical ontologies|medical ontology]], and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML structured data for each article on deposit.<ref>{{cite journal | doi = 10.4242/BalisageVol6.Beck01 | title=Report from the Field: PubMed Central, an XML-based Archive of Life Sciences Journal Articles | journal=Proceedings of the International Symposium on XML for the Long Haul: Issues in the Long-term Preservation of XML | volume=6 | last1 = Beck | first1 = Jeff | name-list-format = vanc | year=2010 | isbn=978-1-935958-02-4 }}</ref> Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via [[Entrez]] search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge.<ref>{{cite webbook|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK153388/|title=PubMed Central |first1=Chris |last1=Maloney |first2=Ed |last2=Sequeira |first3=Christopher |last3=Kelly |first4=Rebecca |last4=Orris |first5=Jeffrey |last5=Beck | name-list-format = vanc |date=5 December 2013|publisher=National Center for Biotechnology Information (US)}}</ref>
 
PubMed Central is very distinct from [[PubMed]].<ref>{{cite web |url= https://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/factsheets/dif_med_pub.html |title=MEDLINE, PubMed, and PMC (PubMed Central): How are they different?|author=|date=|website=www.nlm.nih.gov}}</ref> PubMed Central is a free digital archive of full articles, accessible to anyone from anywhere via a web browser (with varying provisions for reuse). Conversely, although PubMed is a searchable database of biomedical citations and abstracts, the full-text article physically resides elsewhere (in print or online, free or behind a subscriber [[paywall]]).
 
{{As of|2018|12}}, the PMC archive contained over 5.2 million articles,<ref>"Openness by Default", ''Inside Higher Ed'', 16 January 2017.</ref> with contributions coming directly from publishers or authors depositing their own manuscripts into the repository per the [[NIH Public Access Policy]]. Older data shows that from Jan 2013 to Jan 2014 author-initiated deposits exceeded 103,000 papers during this 12-month period.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nihms.nih.gov/stats/|title=NIHMS Statistics|author=|date=|website=nihms.nih.gov}}</ref> PMC also identifies about 4,000 journals which now participate in some capacity to automatically deposit their published content into the PMC repository.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/|title=Home - PMC - NCBI|author=|date=|website=www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov}}</ref> Some participating publishers will delay the release of their articles on PubMed Central for a set time after publication, this is often referred to as an "embargo period", and can range from a few months to a few years depending on the journal. (Embargoes of six to twelve months are the most common.) However, PubMed Central is a key example of "systematic external distribution by a third party"<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Noureddine_Ouerfelli/post/How_to_write_a_good_paper_for_a_Scientific_Journal/attachment/59d61d5e79197b8077977bef/AS%3A273846177861632%401442301424139/download/ArticleUse.pdf |title=Author rights: what's it all about |first=Noureddine |last=Ouerfelli | name-list-format = vanc }}</ref> which is still prohibited by the contributor agreements of many publishers.
 
==Adoption==
A UK version of the PubMed Central system, [[UK PubMed Central (UKPMC)]], has been developed by the [[Wellcome Trust]] and the [[British Library]] as part of a nine-strong group of UK research funders. This system went live in January 2007. On 1 November 2012, it became [[Europe PubMed Central]]. The Canadian member of the PubMed Central International network, [[PubMed Central Canada]], was launched in October 2009.
 
The [[National Library of Medicine]] "NLM Journal Publishing Tag Set" journal article [[markup language]] is freely available.<ref>{{cite web|title=Journal Publishing Tag Set|url=http://dtd.nlm.nih.gov/publishing/|publisher=National Center for Biotechnology Information|accessdateaccess-date=6 November 2013}}</ref> The [[Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers]] comments that "it is likely to become the standard for preparing scholarly content for both books and journals".<ref>{{cite web|last=French|first=Diane| name-list-format = vanc |title=ALPSP Technology Update: A Standard XML Document Format: The case for the adoption of NLM DTD|url=https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin?A2=lis-ukeig;6f7e7fea.06|publisher=ALPSP|accessdateaccess-date=6 November 2013|date=4 August 2006}}</ref> A related [[Document Type Definition|DTD]] is available for books.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://dtd.nlm.nih.gov/book/|title=NCBI Book Tag Set|author=|date=|website=dtd.nlm.nih.gov}}</ref> The [[Library of Congress]] and the British Library have announced support for the NLM DTD.<ref>{{cite web|title=News from the Library of Congress|url=https://www.loc.gov/today/pr/2006/06-097.html|work=Library of Congress|accessdateaccess-date=6 November 2013|date=19 April 2006}}</ref> It has also been popular with journal service providers.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130219041214/http://www.inera.com/nlmresources.shtml|title=Inera Inc. - NLM DTD Resources|author=|date=19 February 2013|website=archive.org}}</ref>
 
With the release of public access plans for many agencies beyond NIH, PMC is in the process of becoming the repository for a wider variety of articles.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cendi.gov/projects/Public_Access_Plans_US_Fed_Agencies.html|title=Public Access Plans of U.S. Federal Agencies|author=|date=|website=cendi.gov}}</ref> This includes NASA content, with the interface branded as "PubSpace".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nasa.gov/open/researchaccess/public-access-results|title=Public Access to Results of NASA-Funded Research|first=Yael|last=Kovo | name-list-format = vanc | date=22 July 2016|website=nasa.gov}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://preview.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/funder/nasa/|title=NASA in PMC|author=|date=|website=preview.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov}}</ref>
 
==Technology==
Reactions to PubMed Central among the scholarly publishing community range between a genuine enthusiasm by some,<ref>[http://www.plos.org/plos-applauds-congress-for-action-on-open-access/ PLOS Applauds Congress for Action on Open Access]</ref> to cautious concern by others.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/scholarly-pubs-(%23277)%20acs.pdf|title=ACS Submission to the Office of Science and Technology Policy Request for Information on Public Access to Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Publications Resulting from Federally Funded Research|author=|date=|website=whitehouse.gov|access-date=2014-02-07|archive-url=http://webarchive.loc.gov/all/20120711094724/http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/scholarly-pubs-%28%23278%29%20biomed.pdf|archive-date=2012-07-11|url-status=dead|df=}}</ref>
 
While PMC is a welcome partner to open access publishers in its ability to augment the discovery and dissemination of biomedical knowledge, that same truth causes others to worry about traffic being diverted from the published version-of-record, the economic consequences of less readership, as well as the effect on maintaining a community of scholars within learned societies.<ref>{{Citecite journal |pmid = 23155924|yearvauthors = 2012|last1Davis =PM Davis|first1 = P. M.|title = The effect of public deposit of scientific articles on readership | journal = The Physiologist | volume = 55 | issue = 5 | pages = 161, 163–5163-5 | date = October 2012 | pmid = 23155924 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Davis |first1vauthors =Philip M.Davis PM | title = Public accessibility of biomedical articles from PubMed Central reduces journal readership—retrospectivereadership--retrospective cohort analysis | journal =The FASEB Journal |date=July 2013 |volume = 27 | issue = 7 | pages =2536–2541 2536–41 | date = July 2013 | pmid = 23554455 | pmc = 3688741 | doi = 10.1096/fj.13-229922|pmid=23554455 |pmc=3688741 }}</ref> A 2013 analysis found strong evidence that public repositories of published articles were responsible for "drawing significant numbers of readers away from journal websites" and that "the effect of PMC is growing over time".<ref>{{Citecite journal |doi = 10.1096/fj.13-229922|pmidvauthors = 23554455|pmcDavis =PM 3688741| title = Public accessibility of biomedical articles from PubMed Central reduces journal readership—retrospectivereadership--retrospective cohort analysis | journal = The FASEB Journal | volume = 27 | issue = 7 | pages = 2536–25412536–41 |year date = July 2013 |last1 pmid = Davis23554455 |first1 pmc = Philip3688741 M| doi = 10.1096/fj.13-229922 }}</ref>
 
Libraries, universities, open access supporters, consumer health advocacy groups, and patient rights organizations have applauded PubMed Central, and hope to see similar public access repositories developed by other federal funding agencies so to freely share any research publications that were the result of taxpayer support.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.autismspeaks.org/about-us/press-releases/autism-speaks-announces-new-policy-give-families-easy-free-access-key-resear|title=Autism Speaks Announces New Policy to Give Families Easy, Free Access to Key Research Findings - Press Release - Autism Speaks|author=|date=25 July 2012|website=www.autismspeaks.org}}</ref>
 
The Antelman study of open access publishing found that in philosophy, political science, electrical and electronic engineering and mathematics, [[Open access (publishing)|open access]] papers had a greater research impact.<ref>{{cite journal |doi = 10.5860/crl.65.5.372|title = Do Open-Access Articles Have a Greater Research Impact?|journal = College & Research Libraries|volume = 65|issue = 5|pages = 372–382|year = 2004|last1 = Antelman|first1 = Kristin}}, summarized by {{cite journal |doi = 10.5860/crln.67.11.7720|title = Scholarly communication: Turning crisis into opportunity|journal = College & Research Libraries News|volume = 67|issue = 11|pages = 692–696|year = 2006|last1 = Stemper|first1 = Jim|last2 = Williams|first2 = Karen | name-list-format = vanc }}</ref> A randomised trial found an increase in content downloads of open access papers, with no citation advantage over subscription access one year after publication.<ref>{{cite journal |url vauthors =https://www.bmj.com/content/337/bmj.a568 Davis PM, Lewenstein BV, Simon DH, Booth JG, Connolly MJ | title = Open access publishing, article downloads, and citations: randomised controlled trial|first1=Philip M.|last1=Davis|first2 journal =Bruce V.Bmj |last2 volume =Lewenstein|first3=Daniel H.337 |last3=Simon|first4=James G.|last4pages =Booth|first5=Mathew J.a568 L.|last5=Connolly| date =31 July 2008 |publisher pmid = 18669565 |journal pmc =BMJ|volume=337|pages=a568 2492576 | doi = 10.1136/bmj.a568 |pmid url =18669565|pmc=2492576 https://www.bmj.com/content/337/bmj.a568 }}</ref>
 
The NIH policy and open access repository work has inspired a [[Open-access mandate#United States funding agencies|2013 presidential directive]] which has sparkled action in other federal agencies as well.
Authors applying for [[NIH]] awards must include the PMCID in their application.
 
== See also ==
* [[Europe PubMed Central]]
* [[JATS]] (technology)
{{Reflist}}
 
== External links ==
{{Wikidata property |1=P932}}
* {{official website|https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/}}