Arsenate: Difference between revisions

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Arsenate can replace inorganic [[phosphate]] in the step of [[glycolysis]] that produces [[1,3-bisphosphoglycerate]] from [[glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate]]. This yields [[1-arseno-3-phosphoglycerate]] instead, which is unstable and quickly hydrolyzes, forming the next intermediate in the pathway, [[3-phosphoglycerate]]. Therefore, glycolysis proceeds, but the [[Adenosine triphosphate|ATP]] molecule that would be generated from [[1,3-bisphosphoglycerate]] is lost – arsenate is an uncoupler of glycolysis, explaining its toxicity.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Hughes |first=Michael F. |title=Arsenic toxicity and potential mechanisms of action |journal=[[Toxicology Letters]] |year=2002 |issue=133 |pages=4 |url=http://nature.berkeley.edu/departments/nut/undergrad_class/Spr_2003_NST_120/D50.pdf }}{{dead link|date=July 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}</ref>
 
As with other arsenic compounds, arsenite binds to [[lipoic acid]],<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.med.unc.edu/intselect/files/biochemistry-of-arsenic-poisoning |title=Archived copy |access-date=4 February 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180320214747/http://www.med.unc.edu/intselect/files/biochemistry-of-arsenic-poisoning |archive-date=20 March 2018 |url-status=dead }}</ref> inhibiting the conversion of [[pyruvate]] into [[acetyl-CoA]], blocking the [[Krebs cycle]] and therefore resulting in further loss of ATP.<ref>{{citation|title=Arsenic Toxicity Case Study|author1=Kim Gehle|author2=Selene Chou|author3=William S. Beckett|publisher=Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry|url=http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.asp?csem=1&po=0|date=2009-10-01}}</ref>
 
==Bacteria using and generating arsenate==