Bar (heraldry): Difference between revisions

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[[File:Blason ville fr Lusignan-Petit 47.svg|thumb|right|200px|Barry (of ten) argent and azure]]
In [[heraldry]], a '''bar''' is an [[Ordinary (heraldry)|ordinary]] consisting of a horizontal band across the shield. If only one bar appears across the middle of the shield, it is termed a ''[[fess]]''; if two or more appear, they can only be called bars. Calling the bar a diminutive of the fess is inaccurate, however, because two bars may each be no smaller than a fess.<ref name=Fox-Davies119>{{Cite book harvp|last=Fox-Davies |first=Arthur Charles |authorlink=Arthur Charles Fox-Davies |others=Ill. by Graham Johnston |year=1909 |title=A Complete Guide to Heraldry |location=London & Edinburgh |publisher=T.C. & E.C. Jack |page=119}}</ref> Like the fess, bars too may bear complex lines (such as embattled, indented, nebuly, etc.).<ref name=Fox-Davies119 /> The diminutive form of the bar (narrower than a bar yet wider than a cottise) is the barrulet, though these frequently appear in pairs, the pair termed a "bar gemel" rather than "two barrulets".<ref name=Fox-Davies119 />
==Common ordinaries==
Thin bars are termed ''barrulets''. A still thinner bar or riband is known as a ''[[Ordinary (heraldry)#Cottise and cottising|cottise]]''. Cottises never appear alone and have no direction of their own, but are borne on each side of an ordinary (such as a fess, pale, bend or chevron). The ordinary thus accompanied by a cottise on each side is then described as "cottised", or these may even be "doubly cottised" (i.e. surrounded by four cottises, two along each side).<ref>{{harvp|Fox-Davies (|1909), |pp. =113, 123.}}</ref>
The "closet" is described as a band of the thickness between a bar and a barrulet, but is rarely found.{{citation needed|date=August 2013}}
A bar that has been "couped" (cut) at the ends so as not to reach the edges of the field is called a ''hamade'', ''hamaide'' or ''hummet'', after the town of [[Ellezelles|La Hamaide]] in [[Hainaut (province)|Hainaut]], [[Belgium]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Frasnes-les-Avaing (Municipality, Hainaut Province, Belgium|url=|publisher=[[Flags of the World]]|accessdate=8 February 2013}}</ref> As a charge, it is almost always depicted in threes. The adjective is ''hummety''.<ref>{{cite bookharvp|author=Brooke-Little, J.P.|title=An Heraldic Alphabet|publisher=Robson Books|date=1996|page=112}} Consulted 29 March 2014.</ref>
==Barry and barruly==
A field divided by many bars — often six, eight or ten parts with two alternating tinctures — is described as ''[[barry (heraldry)|barry]]'' (of ''x'', ''y'' and ''z'', where ''x'' is the number of bars, ''y'' is the first (uppermost) [[tincture (heraldry)|tincture]], and ''z'' is the second tincture). A field divided into five, seven or nine parts with two alternating tinctures is not called ''barry'', however, but two, three or four ''bars''.<ref name=Fox-Davies120>{{harvp|Fox-Davies (|1909), p. |page=120.}}</ref> A barry design consisting of ten or more parts is comparatively rare and is called ''barruly'' rather than ''barry''.<ref name=Fox-Davies120 />
* {{cite book |last=Fox-Davies |first=Arthur Charles |year=1909 |url= |title=A Complete Guide to Heraldry |location=New York |publisher=Dodge Publishing |ISBN=0-517-26643-1 |LCCN=09023803 |via=Internet Archive |ref=harv}}
*{{cite book |last=Brooke-Little |first=J P |title=An heraldic alphabet |edition=New and revised |publisher=Robson Books |location=London |year=1996 |orig-year=1973 |isbn=9781861050779 |ref=harv }}