Shaksgam River: Difference between revisions

Rearrange and sectioning
(Further detail on the course of the river)
(Rearrange and sectioning)
The '''Shaksgam River''' ({{zh|c=沙克斯干河|p=Shakesigan He}}, {{lang-hi|शक्सगाम नदी}}, {{lang-ur|دریائے شکسگام}}) is a left tributary of the [[Yarkand River]]. The river is also known as the '''Kelechin River''' and '''Muztagh River'''.<ref name=ibs>[http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/LimitsinSeas/IBS085.pdf US Bureau of Intelligence and Research ''International Boundary Study No. 85'' (1968)] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120211132925/http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/LimitsinSeas/IBS085.pdf |date=2012-02-11 }}</ref> It rises in the Gasherbrum, Urdok, Staghar, Singhi and Kyagar Glaciers in the [[Karakoram]].<ref>[http://www.itia.ntua.gr/hsj/redbooks/138/iahs_138_0259.pdf Hewitt, K. (1982) ''Natural dams and outburst floods of the Karakoram Himalaya''] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110721082835/http://itia.ntua.gr/hsj/redbooks/138/iahs_138_0259.pdf |date=2011-07-21 }}</ref> It then flows in a general northwestern direction parallel to the Karakoram ridge line in the Shaksgam Valley. It receives the waters of the Shimshal Braldu river and the Oprang river from the Pakistan-administered [[Hunza District]] before turning east and joining the Yarkand River. The stretch of the river's course between Shimshal Braldu and Oprang is used as the Pakistan–China border.<ref>[https://www.openstreetmap.org/relation/2713757#map=9/36.1819/76.8127 Shaksgam river basin], OpenStreetMap, retrieved 13 September 2019.</ref>
 
Administratively, the Chinese part of the valley is within the southernmost portions of [[Yarkand County]] (the source) and the [[Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County]] (lower course). India claims the entire valley as part of its [[Jammu and Kashmir]] state.<ref>[https://www.openstreetmap.org/way/340291900 Boundary of the Trans-Kakarakoram Tract], OpenStreetMap, retrieved 13 September 2019.</ref>
 
== History ==
The river valley was explored in 1889 by [[Francis Younghusband]] (who referred to the Shaksgam as the Oprang).,<ref>{{Cite book
| last = Younghusband
| isbn = }}</ref>
 
== Geography ==
The upper river valley is used by climbers approaching the north face of [[K2 (mountain)#North Ridge|K2]]. The approach requires a crossing of the river, which is hazardous. Between its confluence with the Shimshal Braldu River and its confluence with the Oprang River the river forms the border between China and [[Pakistan administered Kashmir]].<ref name=ibs/> The area is used as winter pastures by yak herdsmen from the village of [[Shimshal]].<ref>[http://www.mockandoneil.com/stg-rpt.htm 2000 Mock & O'Neil Oprang Expedition Report]</ref> Historically, the bed of the Yarkand river where Shaksgam joins it, was used for cultivation by farmers from the state of [[Hunza (princely state)|Hunza]]. The rulers of Hunza are said to have obtained these "territorial rights to Raskam" in the distant past.<ref>{{citation |first=Ahmad Hasan |last=Dani |authorlink=Ahmad Hasan Dani |chapter=The Western Himalayan States |editor1=M. S. Asimov |editor2=C. E. Bosworth |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV, Part 1 — The age of achievement: A.D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century — The historical, social and economic setting |chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=18eABeokpjEC&pg=PA215 |date=1998 |publisher=UNESCO |isbn=978-92-3-103467-1 |pages=215–225}}</ref><ref>{{citation |last=Mehra |first=Parshotam |title=An "agreed" frontier: Ladakh and India's northernmost borders, 1846-1947 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=mIduAAAAMAAJ |year=1992 |publisher=Oxford University Press |pp=95-97}}</ref>
 
Administratively, the Chinese part of the valley is within the southernmost portions of [[Yarkand County]] (the source) and the [[Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County]] (lower course).
 
The average annual temperature in the region can fall below freezing.
[[Category:Karakoram]]
[[Category:China–Pakistan border]]
 
 
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