Urban density: Difference between revisions

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It is commonly asserted that higher density cities are more sustainable than low density cities. Much urban [[Urban planning|planning theory]], particularly in North America, the UK, Australia and New Zealand has been developed premised on raising urban densities, such as [[New Urbanism]], [[transit-oriented development]], and [[smart growth]]. This assertion, however, remains a contested or challenged one.<ref>Williams, Katie, Elizabeth Burton, and Mike Jenks. "[https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=MliRAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA71&dq=%22Achieving+the+compact+city+through+intensification:+An+acceptable+option%22&ots=vYZ_jX1ikb&sig=HFPaZiKxFJdTOq2L7heB392L1c8 Achieving the compact city through intensification: An acceptable option]." The compact city: A sustainable urban form (1996): 83-96.</ref>
 
The link between urban density and aspects of [[sustainability]] remains a contested area of planning theory.<ref>{{Cite journal|title =Spatial Distribution of U.S. Household Carbon Footprints Reveals Suburbanization Undermines Greenhouse Gas Benefits of Urban Population Density|last = Jones|first = Christopher|year=2014 |volume=48 |issue=2 |pages=895–902 |journal = Environmental Science and Technology |doi = 10.1021/es4034364 |pmid = 24328208}}</ref> [[Jan Gehl]], prominent Urban Designer and expert on [[sustainable urbanism]], argues that low-density, dispersed cities are unsustainable as they are [[Automobile dependency|automobile dependent]]. NASA, for example, has established a direct correlation between urban density and air pollution.<ref>{{Cite journal|url=https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasa-scientists-relate-urban-population-to-air-pollution/|title=NASA scientists relate urban population to air pollution|last=|first=|date=2013|website=NASA's Earth Science News Team|doi=10.1016/j.jul.2019.08.006|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2019-07-09|doi-broken-date=2019-08-1820}}</ref>
 
Others, such as Randy O'Toole of the [[Libertarianism|Libertarian]] [[Cato Institute]], point to how raising densities results in more expensive real estate, greater road congestion and more localized air pollution. At a broader level, there is evidence to indicate a strong negative correlation between the total energy consumption of a city and its overall urban density, i.e. the lower the density, the more energy consumed.<ref>
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