Fable: Difference between revisions

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===Europe===
Fables had a further long tradition through the [[Middle Ages]], and became part of European high literature. During the 17th century, the [[France|French]] fabulist [[Jean de La Fontaine]] (1621–1695) saw the soul of the fable in the moral — a rule of behavior. Starting with the Aesopian pattern, La Fontaine set out to satirize the court, the church, the rising [[bourgeoisie]], indeed the entire human scene of his time.<ref>Translations of his 12 books of fables are available online at [http://oaks.nvg.org/fontaine.html oaks.nvg.org]</ref> La Fontaine's model was subsequently emulated by England's [[John Gay]] (1685–1732);<ref>His two collections of 1727 and 1738 are available in one volume on Google Books at [https://books.google.com/books?id=X_Y0AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=john+gay+++%22fables%22&source=bl&ots=_ChY5dZunN&sig=5qBAeejDOY8U5EgxDr4Pgnw68ao&hl=en&ei=EcNNTLKfGpL24AbX5uCaDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CCsQ6AEwBjgK#v=onepage&q&f=false books.google.co.uk]</ref> Poland's [[Ignacy Krasicki]] (1735–1801);<ref>His ''Bajki przypowiesci'' (Fables & Parables, 1779) are available online at [http://literat.ug.edu.pl/ikbajk/index.htm ug.edu.pl]</ref> Italy's [[:it:Lorenzo Pignotti|Lorenzo Pignotti]] (1739–1812)<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6CSQZlaZjE0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=pignotti+++favola&source=bl&ots=n8Mlm8LQld&sig=ubnkrD47WARSbDJKUXgNCj7_Vgo&hl=en&ei=8DhNTP-rOt3NjAeEtLDYDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false |title=His '&#39;Favole e Novelle'&#39; (1785) is available on Google Books |publisher=Books.google.co.uk |date= |accessdate=May 8, 2012}}</ref>{{Verify source|date=May 2012}} and [[:it:Giovanni Gherardo de Rossi|Giovanni Gherardo de Rossi]] (1754–1827);<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=rKoTAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=pignotti+++favola&source=gbs_similarbooks_s&cad=1#v=onepage&q&f=false |title=His '&#39;Favole'&#39; (1788) is available on Google Books |publisher=Books.google.co.uk |date= |accessdate=May 8, 2012}}</ref>{{Verify source|date=May 2012}} Serbia's [[Dositej Obradović]] (1739–1811); Spain's [[Félix María de Samaniego]] (1745–1801)<ref>9 books of fables are available online in Spanish at [http://amediavoz.com/samaniego.htm amediavoz.com]</ref> and [[Tomás de Iriarte y Oropesa]] (1750–1791);<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Zr0DAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Tom%C3%A1s+de+Iriarte+y+Oropesa+fabulas&source=bl&ots=WbHNxf22GV&sig=zrfOpn4x0K8bAykQBwrXmq_zHfQ&hl=en&ei=mElNTMGZO5mW4gbNyLCaDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false |title=His '&#39;Fabulas Literarias'&#39; are available on Google Books |publisher=Books.google.co.uk |date= |accessdate=May 8, 2012}}</ref>{{Verify source|date=May 2012}} France's [[Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian]] (1755–94);<ref>His five books of fables are available online in French at [http://www.shanaweb.net/florian/la-vie-de-florian.htm shanaweb.net] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100612144726/http://shanaweb.net/florian/la-vie-de-florian.htm |date=2010-06-12 }}</ref> and Russia's [[Ivan Krylov]] (1769–1844).<ref>5 books of fables are available online in Russian at [http://www.friends-partners.org/friends/literature/19century/krylov2.html friends-partners.org]</ref>
 
===Modern era===