Urban density: Difference between revisions

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→‎Sustainability: Correct date
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However, the link between urban density and aspects of [[sustainability]] remains a contested area of planning theory{{Citation needed|date=November 2014}}.<ref>{{Cite journal|title = Spatial Distribution of U.S. Household Carbon Footprints Reveals Suburbanization Undermines Greenhouse Gas Benefits of Urban Population Density|last = Jones|first = Christopher|year=2014 |volume=48 |issue=2 |pages=895–902 |journal = Environmental Science and Technology |doi = 10.1021/es4034364 |pmid = 24328208}}</ref> [[Jan Gehl]], prominent Urban Designer and expert on [[sustainable urbanism]], argues that low-density, dispersed cities are unsustainable as they are [[Automobile dependency|automobile dependent]]. NASA, for example, has established a direct correlation between urban density and air pollution<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasa-scientists-relate-urban-population-to-air-pollution/|title=NASA scientists relate urban population to air pollution|last=|first=|date=2013|website=NASA
s Earth Science News Team|doi=10.1016/j.jul.2019.08.006|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2019-07-1909}}</ref> Others, such as Randy O'Toole of the [[Libertarianism|Libertarian]] [[Cato Institute]], point to how raising densities results in more expensive real estate, greater road congestion and more localized air pollution. Others counter that traffic congestion is a result not of population density but of parking capacity.<ref>{{cite web |title=More density does not equal more [car] traffic |author=Jacobsen, Shaun |date={{date|2014-01-14|iso}} |quote=...tall buildings don’t create traffic. Cars create traffic. If we want less [automobile] traffic on the streets, we need to build less capacity for them, including parking. |url=http://transitized.com/2014/01/14/density-equal-car-traffic/ |publisher=Transitized}}</ref> At a broader level, there is evidence to indicate a strong negative correlation between the total energy consumption of a city and its overall urban density, i.e. the lower the density, the more energy consumed.<ref>
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|last= Newman