Deuterium: Difference between revisions

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'''Deuterium''' (or '''hydrogen-2''', symbol '''{{Element2SimpleNuclide2|deuteriumhydrogen|2}}''' or '''{{SimpleNuclide2Element2|hydrogen|2deuterium}}''', also known as '''heavy hydrogen''') is one of two [[Stable isotope ratio|stable isotopes]] of [[hydrogen]] (the other being [[Hydrogen-1|protium]], or hydrogen-1). The [[atomic nucleus|nucleus]] of deuterium, called a '''deuteron''', contains one [[proton]] and one [[neutron]], whereas the far more common protium has no neutron in the nucleus. Deuterium has a [[natural abundance]] in Earth's [[oceans]] of about one [[atom]] in {{val|6420}} of hydrogen. Thus deuterium accounts for approximately 0.02% (or, on a mass basis, 0.03%) of all the naturally occurring hydrogen in the oceans, while protium accounts for more than 99.98%. The abundance of deuterium changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another (see [[Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water]]).
The deuterium isotope's name is formed from the Greek ''deuteros'', meaning "second", to denote the two particles composing the nucleus.<ref name="diplogen">{{cite journal |doi=10.1038/nchem.1273 |pmid=22354440 |author=O'Leary, Dan |title=The deeds to deuterium |journal=Nature Chemistry |volume=4 |issue=3 |page=236 |year=2012 |bibcode=2012NatCh...4..236O}}</ref> Deuterium was discovered and named in 1931 by [[Harold Urey]]. When the neutron was discovered in 1932, this made the nuclear structure of deuterium obvious, and Urey won the [[List of Nobel laureates in Chemistry|Nobel Prize]] in 1934 “for his discovery of heavy hydrogen”. Soon after deuterium's discovery, Urey and others produced samples of "[[heavy water]]" in which the deuterium content had been highly concentrated.