In the United States and other countries, a fully [[tenure]]d professor who retires from an educational institution in good standing may be given the title "professor emeritus" regardless of gender. The title "professor emerita" is sometimes used for women. In most systems and institutions, the rank is bestowed on all professors who have retired in good standing, while at others, it needs a special act or vote. Professors emeriti may, depending on local circumstances, retain office space or other privileges. The word is used either as a postpositional adjective (e.g., "professor emeritus", [[Noam Chomsky]], the renowned scholar and MIT professor emeritus), or as a prepositional adjective (e.g., "emeritus professor"). The concept has in some places been expanded to include tenured associate professors or non-tenure-track faculty.