Libyan resistance movement: Difference between revisions

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{{Contradiction|date=November 2013}}
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{{History of Libya}}
The '''Libyan resistance movement''' was the name given to rebel forces opposing the Libyan[[Italian sideEmpire]] during theits "[[Pacification of Libya]]", which occurred between 1923 and 1932.
 
==History==
 
===CyrenaicaSecond resistanceItalo-Libyan War (1923–1932)===
The [[Italian Empire]] seized the territory that is modern day Libya from the [[Ottoman Empire]], and -according to dictator [[Gaddafi]] and his followers- implemented a [[genocide]] campaign on its occupants in Cyrenaica, killing 20% of its population: the Italians committed many [[war crimes]] during the 'pacification,' including [[chemical warfare]], not taking prisoners of war and instead killing even if they surrendered, and many more horrendous acts. <ref>Gaddafi stated that: women were [[raped]] and [[disembowelled]], libraries were burned, homes and religious institutes were bombed). The Libyans were fighting against the Italians' tanks and [[aerial warfare]] with guns. They were also pushed into [[concentration camps]], an idea that would later be used by Hitler against the Jews, and [[ethical cleansing]] was also done</ref>. Italian historians -like Tripodi-denied all these accusations as excessive and often "fake".
 
In the late 1930s the Libyans in the coastal areas were granted Italian citizenship as part of the fascist efforts to assimilate them and create the [[Imperial Italy (fascist)|Imperial Italy]] in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. This reduced the appeal of the Libyan resistance movement to a few Arab/[[Berbers]] populations of the [[Fezzan]] area only, but this was practically non-existent until the arrival of British troops in the area in 1943.
===Cyrenaica resistance (1923–1932)===
{{main|Pacification of Libya}}
 
The Libyan resistance was initially led by [[Omar Mukhtar]] ([[Arabic language|Arabic]] عمر المختار ''‘Umar Al-Mukhtār'') (1862 – 16 September 1931), who was from the [[wiktionary:tribe|tribe]] of Mnifa, born in a small village called [[Zawiyat Janzur|Janzour]] located in the eastern part of [[Cyrenaica|Barqa]].
 
 
Resistance was totally crushed by General [[Rodolfo Graziani]] in the 1930s and the country was again controlled by the Italians with the help of [[Arabs|Arab]] [[Fascism|fascists]], to the point that many Libyan colonial troops fought on the side of Italy between 1940 and 1943: two divisions of Libyan colonial troops were created in the late 1930s and 30,000 native Libyans fought for Italy during [[World War II]].
 
Libya would finally become independent in 1951 <ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.thoughtco.com/chronological-list-of-african-independence-4070467|title=A Timeline of African Countries' Independence|first1=Alistair Boddy-Evans Alistair Boddy-Evans is a|last1=teacher|first2=African history scholar with more than 25 years of|last2=experience|website=ThoughtCo}}</ref>.
 
==See also==
*[[Gasr Bu Hadi]]
*[[Resistance during World War II]]
* Italy's '[[4thFourth Shore]]'
* The concept of [[Italia irredenta]]
* The [[Italian Mare Nostrum]]
* [[Italian Libya]]
 
==References==
*http://countrystudies.us/libya/20.htm
*http://www.workmall.com/wfb2001/libya/libya_history_world_war_ii_and_independence.html
*https://archive.org/search.php?query=collection%3A%22opensource_movies%22%20AND%20(subject%3A%22%20World%20War%20II%22)
*http://countrystudies.us/libya/23.htm
*http://www.workmall.com/wfb2001/libya/libya_history_world_war_ii_and_independence.html
*http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=collection%3A%22opensource_movies%22%20AND%20(subject%3A%22%20World%20War%20II%22)
*http://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/arab-thoughts-on-the-italian-colonial-wars-in-libya
*http://histclo.com/country/arab/lib/hist/lh-ita.html
*http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/libya/senussi.htm
*https://www.onwar.com/aced/chrono/c1900s/yr20/fitalosanusi1923index2010.htm
 
{{Libya topics}}