Congress of Paris (1856): Difference between revisions

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The '''Congress of Paris''' was a diplomatic meeting held in [[Paris]], France, in 1856,<ref name=Britannica>"Paris, Treaty of(1856)". The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. Volume 9. 15th ed. pp. 153-154. 2007.</ref> between representatives of the great powers in Europe to make peace after the almost three-year-long [[Crimean War]].
 
Paris, just at the conclusion of the [[Exposition Universelle (1855)|1855 Universal Expo]] <ref name="Good"/>
== Before the Congress ==
The [[Crimean war]] was fought mainly on the Crimean Peninsula between Russia on one side, and Great Britain, France, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia on the other. It was fought mainly due to two reasons.
 
The Russians demanded better treatment of and wanted to protect the Orthodox subjects of the Sultan of Turkey.<ref name=Good>The Crimean War 1853- 1856. http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/cite/crimean1853.htm. 2008.</ref> This was later considered and promised by the Sultan of Turkey during the meeting at the Congress of Paris.
 
Also, there was a dispute between the Russians and the French regarding the privileges of the Russian Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Churches in Palestine.<ref name="Good"/> With the backing of Britain, the Turks declared war on Russia on 4 October 1853.<ref name="Good"/> On 28 March 1854, France and Britain also declared war against Russia.
 
Then, on 26 January 1855, Sardinia-Piedmont also entered the war against Russia by sending 10,000 troops to aid the allies.<ref name="Good"/> Throughout the war, the Russian army's main concern was to make sure that Austria stayed out of the war. Still, Austria threatened to enter the war, causing peace.
 
== The Congress ==
[[File:Congrès de Paris, 1856.jpg|thumb|300px|right|[[Épinal print]] of the sovereigns of Europe during the Congress of Paris, 1856]]
The '''Congress of Paris''' took place in [[1856]] to make peace after the almost three-year-long [[Crimean War]]. The Congress of Paris was a peace conference held between representatives of the great powers in Europe, which at the time were: [[France]], [[Great Britain]], the [[Ottoman Empire]], [[Sardinia]], [[Russia]], [[Austria]], and [[Prussia]].<ref name="Britannica"/><ref name=Congress>"Congress of Paris". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Paris-Co.html. 2008</ref> They assembled soon after 1 February 1856, when Russia accepted the first set of peace terms after Austria threatened to enter the war on the side of the Allies. It is also notable that the meeting took place in Paris, just at the conclusion of the [[Exposition Universelle (1855)|1855 Universal Expo]] <ref name="Good"/>
 
The Congress of Paris worked out the final terms from [[25 February]] to [[30 March]] 1856. The [[Treaty of Paris (1856)]] was then signed on 30 March 1856 with Russia on one side and France, Great Britain, Ottoman Turkey, and Sardinia-Piedmont on the other.<ref name="Britannica"/> The group of men negotiated at the Quai d'Orsay.<ref name=Barchard>Barchard, David. SETTING THE WORLD TO RIGHTS. http://www.cornucopia.net/highlights35.html. 2008</ref> One of the representatives who attended the Congress of Paris on behalf of the Ottoman Empire was [[Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha]], who was the grand vizier of the Empire.<ref name="Barchard"/> Russia was represented by Prince [[Orlov (family)|Orlov]] and Baron Brunnov. Britain sent their Ambassador to France, who at the time was the [[Henry Wellesley, 1st Earl Cowley|Lord Cowley]]. While other congresses, such as the [[Congress of Vienna]] (1814), spread questions and issues for different committees to resolve, the Congress of Paris resolved everything in one group.<ref>{{Cite EB1911|first=Walter Alison |last=Phillips|wstitle=Congress|volume=6|page=938}}</ref>