Help:IPA/Finnish: Difference between revisions

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__NOTOC__ {{Information page}}
The charts below show the way in which the [[International Phonetic Alphabet|International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)]] represents [[Estonian language|Estonian]] and [[Finnish language|Finnish]] pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{tl|IPA-et}}, {{tl|IPA-fi}}, and {{section link|Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation#Entering IPA characters}}.
 
See [[Finnish phonology]] and [[Estonian phonology]] for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languagesFinnish.
 
{| style="background: none"
! colspan=4| [[Consonant]]s
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|b}}</big><ref name="loanwords">{{IPA|/[b/]}}, {{IPA|/[f/]}}, {{IPA|/g/[ɡ]}}, and {{IPA|/[ʃ/]}} only occur in loanwords. In casual speech, {{IPA|/b/}}, {{IPA|/g/}}, and {{IPA|/ʃ/}}they may be replaced with {{IPA|/[p/]}}, {{IPA|/[k/]}}, and {{IPA|/[s/]}}, respectively.</ref>
| Finnish {{wikt-lang|fi|'''b'''ussi|i=-}}
| '''b'''ig
|-
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|ç}}</big></big><ref name="x"/>
| Finnish {{wikt-lang|fi|vi'''h'''ma|i=-}}, {{wikt-lang|fi|ly'''h'''ty|i=-}}
| '''h'''uman, '''h'''uge
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|d}}</big>
| Finnish {{wikt-lang|fi|la'''d'''ot|i=-}}
|a'''d'''ept
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|f}}</big><ref name="loanwords"/>
| Finnish {{wikt-lang|fi|'''f'''ilmi|i=-}}
| '''f'''ilm
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|gɡ}}</big><ref name="loanwords"/>
| Finnish {{wikt-lang|fi|'''g'''orilla|i=-}}
| '''g'''o
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|h}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''h'''evonen|i=-}}
|'''h'''orse
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|ɦ}}</big><ref name="x">{{IPA|/ç/}}, {{IPA|/ɦ/}}, and {{IPA|/x/}} can be pronounced as {{IPA|/h/}}.</ref>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|va'''h'''a|i=-}}
| a'''h'''ead
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|j}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''j'''oulu|i=-}}
|'''y'''oyoolk
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|k}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''k'''ala|i=-}}
|s'''c'''old
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|l}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''l'''au'''l'''u|i=-}}
|'''l'''ack
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|lʲ}}</big><ref name="palatalization">In Estonian, [[palatalization (phonetics)|palatalized]] consonants, {{IPA|/tʲ nʲ sʲ lʲ/}}, are pronounced like their non-palatalized counterparts, but the tongue is constricted towards the hard palate as if a simultaneous /j/ were being pronounced.</ref>
| Estonian only: {{wikt-lang|et|jä'''l'''k}}
|'''l'''eep
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|m}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''m'''etsä|i=-}}, {{wikt-lang|fi|o'''n'''pa|i=-}}
|'''m'''ay
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|n}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''n'''e'''n'''ä|i=-}}
|'''n'''anny
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|ŋ}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|va'''ng'''ita|i=-}}, {{wikt-lang|fi|ke'''n'''kä|i=-}}<ref name="ng">Allophone of {{IPA|/n/}} before {{IPA|/k/}}.</ref>
|eati'''ng'''
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|nʲ}}</big><ref name="palatalization"/>
| Estonian only: {{wikt-lang|et|va'''nn'''}}
|o'''n'''ion
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|p}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''p'''uu|i=-}}
|s'''p'''ill
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|r}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''r'''auta|i=-}}
|rolled r
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|s}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''s'''inä|i=-}}
|'''s'''ole
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|ʃ}}</big><ref name="loanwords"/>
| Finnish {{wikt-lang|fi|'''š'''akki|i=-}}
| '''sh'''y
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|sʲ}}</big><ref name="palatalization"/>
| Estonian only: {{wikt-lang|et|va'''s'''tik}}
|'''s'''uper (some dialects)
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|t}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''t'''ina|i=-}}
|s'''t'''and
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|tʲ}}</big><ref name="palatalization"/>
| Estonian only: {{wikt-lang|et|va'''tt'''}}
|[[Received Pronunciation|RP]] s'''t'''ew
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|ʋ}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''v'''iha|i=-}}
|Between '''v''' and '''w'''
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|x}}</big><ref name="x"/>
| Finnish {{wikt-lang|fi|ka'''h'''vi|i=-}}
| ye'''ch''', Scottish English lo'''ch'''
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|ʔ}}</big>
| Finnish {{wikt-lang|fi|vaa'''’'''an|i=-}}, {{wikt-lang|fi|linja'''-'''auto|i=-}}
| the pause in uh'''-'''oh
|-
|-
| style="text-align:center;" rowspan="3" | <big>{{IPA link|ˈ}}</big>
|{{wikt-lang|fi|'''he'''vonen|i=-}}
|Normally placed on the first syllable.
|-
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''her'''ne'''keit'''to|i=-}}<br/> {{IPA|[ˈher.nekˈkejt.to]}}
|Both firstTwo syllables in some compound words.
|-
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''tule'''|i=-}}! {{IPA|[ˈtuˈle]}}
|Both syllables in two-syllable imperatives.
|-
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|ɑ}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|pout'''a'''|i=-}}
|Like f'''a'''ther, but shorter. [[General American|GA]] h'''o'''t
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|ɑː}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|pout'''aa'''|i=-}}
|f'''a'''ther
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|æ}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|pöyt'''ä'''|i=-}}
|c'''a'''t
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|æː}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|päiv'''ää'''|i=-}}
|m'''a'''d
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|e̞|e}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|t'''e'''rve|i=-}}
|l'''e'''t
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|e̞|eː}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''ee'''sti|i=-}}
|émigr p'''éay'''
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|i}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|v'''i'''ha|i=-}}
|[[General American|GA]] happ'''y'''
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|iː}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|s'''ii'''ka|i=-}}
|f'''ee'''d
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|o̞|o}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''o'''ksa|i=-}}
|like th'''ought''' but shorter
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|o̞|oː}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|k'''oo'''staa|i=-}}
|s'''aw'''
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|ø̞|ø}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|p'''ö'''ly|i=-}}
|No English equivalent; somewhat like bn'''iur'''rdse but shorter. French f'''eu'''
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|ø̞|øː}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|sär'''öö'''n|i=-}}
|Somewhat somewhat like b'''i'''rd; German sch'''öir'''nd
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|ɤ}}</big>
| Estonian only: {{wikt-lang|et|'''õ'''lu}}
|Somewhat like w'''oo'''d; [[Received Pronunciation|RP]] long '''a'''go
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|ɤː}}</big>
| Estonian only: {{wikt-lang|et|'''õõ'''nsus}}
|Same as above but longer
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|u}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|s'''u'''rma|i=-}}
|w'''oo'''d
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|uː}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|s'''uu'''|i=-}}, {{wikt-lang|fi|r'''uo'''an|i=-}}
|c'''oo'''p
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|y}}</big>
|Finnish {{wikt-lang|fi|kes'''y'''|i=-}}<br />Estonian {{wikt-lang|et|k'''ü'''la}}
|No English equivalent; somewhat like c'''u'''be. French '''u'''nete
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA link|yː}}</big>
|Finnish {{wikt-lang|fi|r'''yy'''ppy|i=-}}<br />{{nowrap|Estonian {{wikt-lang|et|r'''üü'''pa}}}}
|Somewhatsomewhat like tc'''oou'''. German '''ü'''berbe
|}
|}
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|ɑj}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''ai'''ka|i=-}}
|'''ai'''sle, '''eye'''
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|ɑw}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''au'''ra|i=-}}
|h'''ow''' (RP)
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|æj}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''äi'''ti|i=-}}
|m'''ai'''n in some Australian dialects
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|æɥ}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|t'''äy'''tyy|i=-}}
|d'''ow'''n (GA)
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|ej}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''ei'''|i=-}}, {{wikt-lang|fi|h'''ei'''|i=-}}
|h'''ey'''d'''ay'''
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|ew}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|n'''eu'''traali|i=-}}
|No English equivalent. Spanish and Italian n'''eu'''tro.
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|eɥ}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|kesk'''ey'''tyä|i=-}}
|No English equivalent
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|ie̯}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|k'''ie'''li|i=-}}
|No English equivalent. Somewhat like Spanish t'''ie'''rra.
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|iw}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|v'''iu'''lu|i=-}}
|somewhat like k'''iw'''i
|-
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|iɥ}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|siist'''iy'''tyä|i=-}}
|No English equivalent
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|oj}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|k'''oi'''ttaa|i=-}}, {{wikt-lang|fi|k'''oe'''ttaa|i=-}}
|c'''oi'''n
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|ow}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''ou'''to|i=-}}
|American pronunciation of n'''o''', '''oh'''
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|øj}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|t'''öi'''tä|i=-}}
|No English equivalent. French f'''eui'''lle.
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|øɥ}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|p'''öy'''ristyä|i=-}}
|roughly like the British pronunciation of n'''o''', '''oh'''
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|uj}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|m'''ui'''ta|i=-}}
|No English equivalent. Spanish m'''uy''', French gren'''oui'''lle, Portuguese an'''ui'''s, Italian l'''ui'''.
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|uo̯}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|S'''uo'''mi|i=-}}
|Somewhat like '''woah'''. Italian s'''uo''' (but with diphthong)
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|yj}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|s'''yi'''tä|i=-}}
|No English equivalent. Somewhat like French h'''ui'''t.
|-
| style="text-align:center;" |<big>{{IPA|yø̯}}</big>
| {{wikt-lang|fi|'''yö'''|i=-}}, {{wikt-lang|fi|t'''yö'''tä|i=-}}
|No English equivalent. French poll'''ueu'''se (but with diphthong)
|}
|}
 
==Estonian diphthongs==
/ɑe/, /ɑi/, /ɑo/, /ɑu/, /æe/, /æi/, /æo/, /æu/, /eɑ/, /ei/, /eo/, /iu/, /oɑ/, /oe/, /oi/, /ou/, /ɤɑ/, /ɤe/, /ɤi/, /ɤo/, /ɤu/, /øɑ/, /øe/, /øi/, /ui/, /yi/.
 
==Notes==
==References==
{{refbegin}}
* {{citation
|last=Asu
|first=Eva Liina
|last2=Teras
|first2=Pire
|year=2009
|title=Estonian
|journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
|volume=39
|issue=3
|pages=367–372
|doi=10.1017/s002510030999017x
|url=https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/629DFE570A2E6606733B29A0145B4512/S002510030999017Xa.pdf/estonian.pdf
}}
* {{citation
|last1=Suomi
==External links==
*[http://www.cs.tut.fi/~jkorpela/suomi/fon.html Pronunciation of Finnish in a nutshell]
*[http://www.eki.ee/knn/ungegn/un7_gdl.htm#123 Pronunciation of Estonian geographical names]
 
{{IPA keys horizontal}}