Evolutionary radiation: Difference between revisions

Added a few new references; slightly expanded definition; added a few new types of evolutionary radiation.
(Adding short description: "An increase in taxonomic diversity or morphological disparity, due to adaptive change or the opening of ecospace" (Shortdesc helper))
m (Added a few new references; slightly expanded definition; added a few new types of evolutionary radiation.)
{{Distinguish|Adaptive radiation}}
An '''evolutionary radiation''' is an increase in [[Taxonomy (biology)|taxonomic]] diversity orthat [[morphologyis (biology)caused by elevated rates of speciation<ref name="Simões et al 2016">{{Cite journal|morphological]] disparity,first1 due= toM. [[adaptation|adaptive]] changetitle or= theThe openingevolving theory of evolutionary radiations | journal = Trends in Ecology & Evolution | volume = 31 | issue = | pages = 27–34| year = 2016| last1 = Simões et al. | doi = 10.1016/j.tree.2015.10.007 }}</ref>, that may or may not be associated with an increase in [[ecospacemorphology (biology)|morphological]] disparity, .<ref name=Wesley-Hunt2005>{{Cite journal| first1 = G. D. | title = The morphological diversification of carnivores in North America | url = | format = | journal = Paleobiology | volume = 31 | issue = | pages = 35–55| year = 2005| last1 = Wesley-Hunt | doi = 10.1666/0094-8373(2005)031<0035:TMDOCI>2.0.CO;2
}}</ref> Radiations may affect one [[clade]] or many, and be rapid or gradual; where they are rapid, and driven by a single lineage's adaptation to their environment, they are termed [[adaptive radiation]]s.<ref name=Schluter2000>{{cite book
| author = Schluter, D.
| year = 2000
Geographic radiations involve an increase in speciation caused by increasing opportunities for geographic isolation.<ref name="Simões et al 2016"/> Adaptive radiations involve an increase in the rate of speciation within a clade driven primarily by biotic factors such as a ‘key innovation’,and occurring in sympatry and coupled with ecomorphological divergence<ref name="Lieberman2012">{{Cite journal| first1 = B.S. | title = Adaptive radiations in the context of macroevolutionary theory: a paleontological perspective | journal = Evolutionary Biology | volume = 39 | issue = | pages = 181–191| year = 2012| last1 = Lieberman}}</ref>. Radiations may be discordant, with either diversity or disparity increasing almost independently of the other, or concordant, where both increase at a similar rate.<ref name=Wesley-Hunt2005/>
==In the fossil record==
==Recent examples==
A number of groups have undergone evolutionary radiation in relatively recent times. The [[cichlidae|cichlids]] in particular have been much studied by [[biology|biologists]]. In places such as [[Lake Malawi]] they have evolved into a very wide variety of forms, including species that are filter feeders, snail eaters, brood parasites, algal grazers, and fish-eaters.<ref>The Cichlid Fishes: Nature's Grand Experiment in Evolution by George Barlow (2002)</ref> [[Anolis ecomorph|Caribbean anoline lizards]] are another well-known example of an adaptive radiation.<ref>[http://www87.homepage.villanova.edu/todd.jackman/anolis/parallel.html ''Parallel Adaptive Radiations - Caribbean Anoline Lizards.''] ToodTodd Jackman. Villanova University. Retrieved 10 September 2013.</ref> [[Grass]]es have been a success, evolving in parallel with [[grazing]] [[herbivore]]s such as [[horse]]s and [[antelope]].<ref>[http://www.palaeos.com/Cenozoic/Cenozoic.htm Palaeos Cenozoic: The Cenozoic Era<!-- Bot generated title -->] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081106000812/http://www.palaeos.com/Cenozoic/Cenozoic.htm |date=2008-11-06 }}</ref>
==See also==
* [[Evolutionary fauna]]
* [[Adaptive radiation]]