Johann Christian Ludwig Hellwig: Difference between revisions

("Humboldt Museum" was only a name used from 1949 to 2009)
== Hellwig's Wargame ==
[[File:Hellwig Wargame Reconstruction Nohr 1.jpg|thumb|right|A reconstruction of Hellwig's wargame, based on his 1780 manual.]]
He was also the inventor of ''[[Kriegsspiel (wargame)|kriegsspiel]]'' (literally war game), a sophisticated [[Chess variants|variant]] of [[chess]] which had much success in its time. Hellwig published the first edition of his ''kriegsspiel'' in 1780 as ''Versuch eines aufs Schachspiel gebaueten taktischen Spiels von zwey und mehreren Personen zu spielen,'' or "Attempt to build upon chess a tactical game which two or more persons might play."<ref name=playingworld>{{cite book | title = Playing at the World | last = Peterson | first = Jon | author-link = | publisher = Unreason Press | year = 2012 | location = San Diego CA | page = 213 | isbn = 978-0615642048}}</ref> His objective was to try to create a chess-like game that better reflected the military science of the day, especially the behavior of infantry, cavalry and artillery. His initial ''kriegsspiel'' vastly expanded the chess board (he usually employed a board of 49 ranks by 33 files, for 1617 squares) and radically changed the behavior of pieces, as well as introducing several new pieces. Rather than depicting only the abstract space of chess, his board had varying terrain types, including mountains, swamps and water squares. Rather than capturing the king to win, one had to occupy an enemy fortress. Hellwig further refined his game over the next twenty years, publishing in 1803 his revised ''Das Kriegsspiel,'' which dispensed with the trappings of chess entirely and substituted for chess pieces new units representing the military branches of his era. His game spawned numerous contemporary imitators, and its fundamental innovations formed the basis of the hobby board wargames pioneered by [[Avalon Hill]] in the twentieth century.