Yarkand River: Difference between revisions

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I've added the sentence missing where paksitan gifted this land to china 1963 and changed the wrongly mentioned name of kashmir instead of Gilgit Baltistan.
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m (I've added the sentence missing where paksitan gifted this land to china 1963 and changed the wrongly mentioned name of kashmir instead of Gilgit Baltistan.)
The '''Yarkand River''' (or '''Yarkent River''') is a [[river]] in the [[Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region]] of western [[People's Republic of China|China]], originating in the [[Karakoram]] range and flowing into the '''[[Tarim River]]''', with which it is sometimes identified. However, in modern times, the Yarkand river drains into the Shangyou Reservoir and exhausts its supply without reaching the Tamim river. The Yarkand River is approximately 1097 km (600 mi) in length, with an average discharge of {{convert|210|m3/s|cuft/s|abbr=on}}.
 
A part of the river valley is known to the [[Kyrgyz people]] as '''Raskam''', and the upper course of the river itself is called the Raskam River.<ref>S.R. Bakshi, ''Kashmir through Ages'' {{ISBN|81-85431-71-X}} vol 1 p.22, in Google Books</ref> Another name of the river is '''Zarafshan'''.<ref>[http://geonames.nga.mil/ggmagaz/ NGIA GeoNames search]</ref> The area was once claimed by the ruler of [[Hunza (princely state)Valley|Hunza]] and was part of it until [[Pakistan]] Government gifted it to [[China]] in 1963.
 
== Course ==
== History ==
[[File:Yarkand-calles-d01.jpg|thumb|left|260px|Yarkand (Shache)]]
The ancient [[Silk Road|Silk Route]] into South Asia followed the Yarkand River valley. From [[Aksu, Xinjiang|Aksu]], it went via [[Maralbexi County|Maral Bashi]] (Bachu) on the bank of the Yarkand River, to the city of [[Yarkant County|Yarkand]] (Shache). From Yarkand, the route crossed the [[Bolor-Tagh]] mountains through the river valleys of Yarkand and Tashkurgan to reach the town of [[Tashkurgan Town|Tashkurgan]]. From there, it crossed the [[Karakoram]] mountains through one of the western passes ([[Kilik Pass|Kilik]], [[Mintaka Pass|Mintaka]] or [[Khunjerab Pass|Khunjerab]]) to reach [[Gilgit]] in northern [[KashmirGilgit-Baltistan]]. ( Dispued Territory). Then it went on to [[Gandhara]] (the vicinity of present day [[Peshawar]]).{{sfn|Harmatta|1996|pp=492-493}}<ref>{{citation |last=Bagchi |first=Prabodh Chandra |editor1=Bangwei Wang |editor2=Tansen Sen |title=India and China: Interactions through Buddhism and Diplomacy: A Collection of Essays by Professor Prabodh Chandra Bagchi |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=hrA1DgAAQBAJ&pg=PA186 |date=2011 |publisher=Anthem Press |isbn=978-0-85728-821-9 |pages=186–}}</ref> The Indian merchants from Gandhara introduced the [[Kharosthi]] script into the Tarim Basin, and the Buddhist monks followed in their wake, spreading Buddhism.{{sfn|Harmatta|1996|pp=425-426}} The Chinese Buddhist traveller [[Fa Xian]] is believed to have followed this route.
 
With the Arab conquest of [[Khurasan]] in 651 AD, the main Silk route to western Asia was interrupted, and the importance of the South Asian route increased. Gilgit as well as Baltistan find increased mention in the Chinese chronicles (under the names Great ''Po-lu'' and Little ''Po-lu'', from the old name [[Balawaristan|Bolor]]). China invaded Gilgit in 747 AD to secure its routes to Gandhara and prevent Tibetan influence. But the effects of the invasion appear to have been short-lived, as Turkic rule took hold in Gilgit.{{sfn|Litvinsky|1996|pp=374–375}}{{sfn|Dani|1998|p=222}}