Yarkand River: Difference between revisions

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(Clarifying nomenclature)
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The river originates from the [[Rimo Glacier]] in the [[Karakoram]] range in the south of the [[Kashgar Prefecture]].<ref name="AhmadRais1998">{{citation |last1=Ahmad |first1=Naseeruddin |last2=Rais |first2=Sarwar |title=Himalayan Glaciers |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=WyLO6m38jloC&pg=PA50 |year=1998 |publisher=APH Publishing |isbn=978-81-7024-946-7 |page=50}}</ref> It flows roughly due north until reaching the foot of the [[Kunlun Mountains]]. Then it flows northwest where it receives waters from the [[Shaksgam River]], which also originates from the Rimo Glacier. The Shaksgam is also known in its lower course (before falling into the Yarkand) as the Keleqing River ({{zh|c=克勒青河|p=Kèlèqīng Hé|links=no}}).
Then Yarkand River flows north, through the [[Bolor-Tagh]] mountains parallel to the [[Tashkurgan Town|Tashkurgan]] valley, eventually receiving the waters of the [[Tashkurgan River]] from the west.
After this, itthe river turns northeast and enters the [[Tarim Basin]], forming a rich oasis that waters the [[Yarkant county]]. Continuing northeast, it receives the [[Kashgar River]] from the west, eventually draining into the Shangyou Reservoir.
Even though the river originally drained into the [[Tarim River]], development along its course in recent decades has depleted its flow. During the period 1986 to 2000, it flowed into the Tarim River only once.<ref name="WildererZhu2003">{{citation|last1=Wilderer|first1=Peter A.|last2=Zhu|first2=J.|last3=Schwarzenbeck|first3=N.|title=Water in China|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=OYbmKnx3UmkC&pg=PA5|year=2003|publisher=IWA Publishing|isbn=978-1-84339-501-0|pages=5–}}</ref>
== History ==
[[File:Yarkand-calles-d01.jpg|thumb|left|260px|Yarkand (Shache)]]
The ancient [[Silk Road|Silk Route]] into South Asia followed the Yarkand River valley. From [[Aksu, Xinjiang|Aksu]], it went via [[Maralbexi County|Maral Bashi]] (Bachu) on the bank of the Yarkand River, to the city of [[Yarkant County|Yarkand]] (Shache). From Yarkand, the route crossed the [[Bolor-Tagh]] mountains through the river valleys of Yarkand and Tashkurgan to reach the town of [[Tashkurgan Town|Tashkurgan]]. From there, it crossed the [[Karakoram]] mountains either through one of the western passes ([[Kilik Pass|Kilik]] or, [[Mintaka Pass|Mintaka]] passor [[Khunjerab Pass|Khunjerab]]) to reach [[Gilgit]] (in northern [[Kashmir]]). and thenThen it went on to [[Gandhara]] (the vicinity of present day [[Peshawar]]).{{sfn|Harmatta|1996|pp=492-493}}<ref>{{citation |last=Bagchi |first=Prabodh Chandra |editor1=Bangwei Wang |editor2=Tansen Sen |title=India and China: Interactions through Buddhism and Diplomacy: A Collection of Essays by Professor Prabodh Chandra Bagchi |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=hrA1DgAAQBAJ&pg=PA186 |date=2011 |publisher=Anthem Press |isbn=978-0-85728-821-9 |pages=186–}}</ref> The Indian merchants from Gandhara introduced the [[Kharosthi]] script into the Tarim Basin, and the Buddhist monks followed in their wake, spreading Buddhism.{{sfn|Harmatta|1996|pp=425-426}} The Chinese Buddhist traveller [[Fa Xian]] is believed to have followed this route.
With the Arab conquest of [[Khurasan]] in 651 AD, the main Silk route to western Asia was interrupted, and the importance of the South Asian route increased. Gilgit as well as Baltistan find increased mention in the Chinese chronicles (under the names Great ''Po-lu'' and Little ''Po-lu'', from the old name [[Balawaristan|Bolor]]). China invaded Gilgit in 747 AD to secure its routes to Gandhara and prevent Tibetan influence. But the effects of the invasion appear to have been short-lived, as Turkic rule took hold in Gilgit.{{sfn|Litvinsky|1996|pp=374–375}}{{sfn|Dani|1998|p=222}}
* {{citation |first1=H. S. |last1=Pirumshoev |first2=Ahmad Hasan |last2=Dani |authorlink2=Ahmad Hasan Dani |chapter=The Pamirs, Badakhshan and the Trans-Pamir States |editor1=Chahryar Adle |editor2=Irfan Habib |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. V — Development in contrast: From the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century |url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf |date=2003 |publisher=UNESCO |isbn=978-92-3-103876-1 |pages=225–246 |ref={{sfnref|Pirumshoev & Dani, The Pamirs, Badakhshan and the Trans-Pamir States|2003}}}}
* {{citation |last1=Khan |first1=Iqtidar A. |last2=Habib |first2=Irfan |authorlink2=Irfan Habib |chapter=International Relations |editor1=Chahryar Adle |editor2=Irfan Habib |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume V: Development in contrast: From the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century |publisher=UNESCO Publishing |year=2003 |ISBN=978-92-3-103876-1 |url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf |pp=327–345}}
== External links ==
* [https://www.openstreetmap.org/relation/532792#map=7/37.914/78.292 Yarkand River] plotted on OpenStreetMap.