Yarkand River: Difference between revisions

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== Course ==
The river originates from the [[Rimo Glacier]] in the [[Karakoram]] range in the south of the [[Kashgar Prefecture]].<ref name="AhmadRais1998">{{citation |last1=Ahmad |first1=Naseeruddin |last2=Rais |first2=Sarwar |title=Himalayan Glaciers |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=WyLO6m38jloC&pg=PA50 |year=1998 |publisher=APH Publishing |isbn=978-81-7024-946-7 |page=50}}</ref> It flows roughly due north until reaching the foot of the [[Kunlun Mountains]]. Then it flows northwest where it receives waters from the [[Shaksgam River]], which also originates from the Rimo Glacier. The Shaksgam is also known in its lower course (before falling into the Yarkand) as the Keleqing River ({{zh|c=克勒青河|p=Kèlèqīng Hé|links=no}}).
Then Yarkand River flows north, parallel to the [[Tashkurgan Town|Tashkurgan]] valley, eventually receiving the waters of the [[Tashkurgan River]].
The ancient [[Silk Road|Silk Route]] into South Asia followed the Yarkand River valley. From [[Aksu, Xinjiang|Aksu]], it went via [[Maralbexi County|Maral Bashi]] (Bachu) on the bank of the Yarkand River, to the city of [[Yarkant County|Yarkand]] (Shache). From Yarkand, the route crossed the mountains through the river valleys to reach [[Tashkurgan Town|Tashkurgan]]. From there, it crossed the [[Karakoram]] mountains either through the [[Kilik Pass|Kilik]] or [[Mintaka Pass|Mintaka]] pass to reach [[Gilgit]] (in northern [[Kashmir]]) and then on to [[Gandhara]] (the vicinity of present day [[Peshawar]]).{{sfn|Harmatta|1996|pp=492-493}}<ref>{{citation |last=Bagchi |first=Prabodh Chandra |editor1=Bangwei Wang |editor2=Tansen Sen |title=India and China: Interactions through Buddhism and Diplomacy: A Collection of Essays by Professor Prabodh Chandra Bagchi |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=hrA1DgAAQBAJ&pg=PA186 |date=2011 |publisher=Anthem Press |isbn=978-0-85728-821-9 |pages=186–}}</ref> The Indian merchants from Gandhara introduced the [[Kharosthi]] script into the Tarim Basin, and the Buddhist monks followed in their wake, spreading Buddhism.{{sfn|Harmatta|1996|pp=425-426}} The Chinese Buddhist traveller [[Fa Xian]] is believed to have followed this route.
With the Arab conquest of [[Khurasan]] in 651 AD, the main Silk route to western Asia was interrupted, and the importance of the South Asian route increased. Gilgit as well as Baltistan find increased mention in the Chinese chronicles (under the names Great ''Po-lu'' and Little ''PoluPo-lu'', from the old name [[Balawaristan|Bolor]]). China invaded Gilgit in 747 AD to secure its routes to Gandhara and prevent Tibetan influence. But the effects of the invasion appear to have been short-lived, as Turkic rule took hold in Gilgit.{{sfn|Litvinsky|1996|pp=374–375}}{{sfn|Dani|1998|p=222}}
[[File:Chagatai Khanate (1490).png|thumb|right|300px|Moghulistan (Chagatai Khanate), 1490 AD]]
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It is possible that alternative trade routes developed after this time between Yarkand and [[Ladakh]] via the [[Karakash River|Karakash Valley]]. The region of [[Hunza District|Hunza]] adjoining Xinjiang, which contained the passes through the Karakoram range, began to split off from Gilgit as an independent state around 997, and internecine wars with Gilgit as well as neighbouring [[Nagar District|Nagar]] became frequent.{{sfn|Dani|1998|pp=223,&nbsp;224}}{{sfn|Pirumshoev|Dani|2003|pp=238,&nbsp;242}} The rising importance of the Ladakh route is illustrated by the raids into Ladakh conducted by [[Mirza Abu Bakr Dughlat]] who took control of Kashgaria in 1465. His successor, [[Sultan Said Khan]] launched a proper invasion of Ladakh and Kashmir in 1532, led by his general [[Mirza Haidar Dughlat]].{{sfn|Khan|Habib|2003|p=330}}
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* {{citation |last=Harmatta |first=János |authorlink=János Harmatta |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II: The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250 |publisher=UNESCO Publishing |year=1996 |ISBN=978-92-3-102846-5 |url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001057/105703eo.pdf}}
* {{citation |last=Litvinsky |first=B. A. |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume III: The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750 |publisher=UNESCO Publishing |year=1996 |ISBN=978-92-3-103211-0 |url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf}}
* {{citation |first=Ahmad Hasan |last=Dani |authorlink=Ahmad Hasan Dani |chapter=The Western Himalayan States |editor1=M. S. Asimov |editor2=C. E. Bosworth |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV, Part 1 — The age of achievement: A.D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century — The historical, social and economic setting |url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001116/111664eo.pdf |date=1998 |publisher=UNESCO |isbn=978-92-3-103467-1 |pages=215–225}}
* {{citation |first1=H. S. |last1=Pirumshoev |first2=Ahmad Hasan |last2=Dani |authorlink2=Ahmad Hasan Dani |chapter=The Pamirs, Badakhshan and the Trans-Pamir States |editor1=Chahryar Adle |editor2=Irfan Habib |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. V — Development in contrast: From the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century |url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf |date=2003 |publisher=UNESCO |isbn=978-92-3-103876-1 |pages=225–246 |ref={{sfnref|Pirumshoev & Dani, The Pamirs, Badakhshan and the Trans-Pamir States|2003}}}}
* {{citation |last1=Khan |first1=Iqtidar A. |last2=Habib |first2=Irfan |authorlink2=Irfan Habib |chapter=International Relations |editor1=Chahryar Adle |editor2=Irfan Habib |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume V: Development in contrast: From the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century |publisher=UNESCO Publishing |year=2003 |ISBN=978-92-3-103876-1 |url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf |pp=327–345}}