Yarkand River: Difference between revisions

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== History ==
[[File:Yarkand-calles-d01.jpg|thumb|left|260px|Yarkand (Shache)]]
The ancient [[Silk Road|Silk Route]] into South Asia followed the Yarkand River valley. From [[Aksu, Xinjiang|Aksu]], it went via [[Maralbexi County|Maral Bashi]] (Bachu) on the bank of the Yarkand River, to the city of [[Yarkant County|Yarkand]] (Shache). From Yarkand, the route crossed the mountains through the river valleys to reach [[Tashkurgan Town|Tashkurgan]]. From there, it crossed the [[Karakoram]] mountains either through the [[Kilik Pass|Kilik]] or [[Mintaka Pass|Mintaka]] pass to reach [[Gilgit]] (in northern [[Kashmir]]) and then on to [[Gandhara]] (the vicinity of present day [[Peshawar]]).{{sfn|Harmatta|1996|pp=492-493}}<ref>{{citation |last=Bagchi |first=Prabodh Chandra |editor1=Bangwei Wang |editor2=Tansen Sen |title=India and China: Interactions through Buddhism and Diplomacy: A Collection of Essays by Professor Prabodh Chandra Bagchi |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=hrA1DgAAQBAJ&pg=PA186 |date=2011 |publisher=Anthem Press |isbn=978-0-85728-821-9 |pages=186–}}</ref> The Indian merchants from Gandhara introduced the [[Kharosthi]] script into the Tarim Basin, and the Buddhist monks followed in their wake, spreading Buddhism.{{sfn|Harmatta|1996|pp=425-426}} The Chinese Buddhist traveller [[Fa Xian]] is believed to have followed this route.
With the Arab conquest of [[Khurasan]] in 651 AD, the main Silk route to western Asia was interrupted, and the importance of the South Asian route increased. Gilgit as well as Baltistan find increased mention in the Chinese chronicles (under the names Great ''Po-lu'' and Little ''Polu'', from the old name [[Balawaristan|Bolor]]). China invaded Gilgit in 747 AD to secure its routes to Gandhara and prevent Tibetan influence.{{sfn|Litvinsky|1996|pp=374–375}}