Yarkand River: Difference between revisions

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[[File:叶尔羌河 - Yarkand River - 2015.04 - panoramio (1).jpg|thumb|right|260px|Yarkand River]]
The '''Yarkand River''' (or '''Yarkent River''') is a [[river]] in the [[Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region]] of western [[People's Republic of China|China]], originating in the [[Karakoram]] range and flowing into the [[Tarim River]]. However, in practice, the river drains into the Shangyou Reservoir and exhausts its supply. During the period 1986 to 2000, it flowed into the Tarim River only once.<ref name="WildererZhu2003">{{citation|last1=Wilderer|first1=Peter A.|last2=Zhu|first2=J.|last3=Schwarzenbeck|first3=N.|title=Water in China|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=OYbmKnx3UmkC&pg=PA5|year=2003|publisher=IWA Publishing|isbn=978-1-84339-501-0|pages=5–}}</ref> The Yarkand River is approximately 1097&nbsp;km (600&nbsp;mi) in length, with an average discharge of {{convert|210|m3/s|cuft/s|abbr=on}}.
A part of the river valley is known to the [[Kyrgyz people]] as '''Raskam''', and the river itself is also called the Raskam River.<ref>S.R. Bakshi, ''Kashmir through Ages'' {{ISBN|81-85431-71-X}} vol 1 p.22, in Google Books</ref> The river is also known as the '''Zarafshan River'''.<ref>[http://geonames.nga.mil/ggmagaz/ NGIA GeoNames search]</ref> The area was once claimed by the ruler of [[Hunza (princely state)|Hunza]].
Then Yarkand River flows north, parallel to the [[Tashkurgan Town|Tashkurgan]] valley, eventually receiving the waters of the [[Tashkurgan River]].
After this, it turns eastnortheast and enters the [[Tarim Basin]], forming a rich oasis that waters the [[Yarkant county]]. Continuing northeast, it receives the [[Kashgar River]] from the west, eventually draining into the Shangyou Reservoir..
TheEven drainagethough areathe ofriver Yarkandoriginally isdrained 108,00into sq. km. It irrigates areas inthe [[TaxkorganTarim County|TaxkorganRiver]], [[Yechengdevelopment County|Yecheng]],along [[Poskamits County|Poskam]],course [[Yarkantin County|Yarkand]],recent [[Makitdecades County|Makit]]has anddepleted [[Bachu County|Bachu]]its countiesflow. ItDuring alsothe irrigatesperiod ten1986 missionto fields2000, init flowed into the AgriculturalTarim River only Divisiononce.<ref name="Chen2014WildererZhu2003">{{citation|lastlast1=ChenWilderer|firstfirst1=YaningPeter A.|last2=Zhu|first2=J.|last3=Schwarzenbeck|first3=N.|title=Water Resources Research in Northwest China|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=jWDFBAAAQBAJOYbmKnx3UmkC&pg=PA16PA5|year=20142003|publisher=SpringerIWA Science & Business MediaPublishing|isbn=978-941-01784339-8017501-90|pages=16–5–}}</ref>
The drainage area of Yarkand is 108,000 sq. km. It irrigates areas in [[Taxkorgan County|Taxkorgan]], [[Yecheng County|Yecheng]], [[Poskam County|Poskam]], [[Yarkant County|Yarkand]], [[Makit County|Makit]] and [[Bachu County|Bachu]] counties. It also irrigates ten mission fields in the Agricultural Division.<ref name="Chen2014">{{citation|last=Chen|first=Yaning|title=Water Resources Research in Northwest China|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=jWDFBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA16|year=2014|publisher=Springer Science & Business Media|isbn=978-94-017-8017-9|pages=16–}}</ref>
== History ==
[[File:Yarkand-calles-d01.jpg|thumb|left|260px|Yarkand (Shache)]]
The ancient [[Silk Road|Silk Route]] into South Asia followed the Yarkand River valley. From [[Aksu, Xinjiang|Aksu]], it went via [[Maralbexi County|Maral Bashi]] (Bachu) on the bank of the Yarkand River, to the city of [[Yarkant County|Yarkand]] (Shache). From Yarkand, the route crossed the mountains through the river valleys to reach [[Tashkurgan Town|Tashkurgan]]. From there, it crossed the [[Karakoram]] mountains either through the [[Kilik Pass|Kilik]] or [[Mintaka Pass|Mintaka]] pass to reach [[Gilgit]] and then on to [[Gandhara]] (the vicinity of present day [[Peshawar]]).<ref>{{citation |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II: The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to AD> 250 |publisher=UNESCO Publishing |ISBN=978-92-3-102846-5 |url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001057/105703eo.pdf |pp=492-493}}</ref><ref>{{citation |last=Bagchi |first=Prabodh Chandra |editor1=Bangwei Wang |editor2=Tansen Sen |title=India and China: Interactions through Buddhism and Diplomacy: A Collection of Essays by Professor Prabodh Chandra Bagchi |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=hrA1DgAAQBAJ&pg=PA186 |date=2011 |publisher=Anthem Press |isbn=978-0-85728-821-9 |pages=186–}}</ref>
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