Yarkand River: Difference between revisions

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{{Infobox river
| name = Yarkand River
| image = 叶尔羌河 - Yarkand River - 2015.04 - panoramio (1).jpg
| image_size = 300px
| image_caption = Yarkand River
{{Chinese|s=叶尔羌河|t=葉爾羌河|p=Yè'ěrqiāng Hé|w=Yeh<sup>4</sup>-erh<sup>3</sup>-ch'iang<sup>1</sup> He<sup>2</sup>|mi={{IPAc-cmn|ye|4|er|3|q|iang|1|-|h|e|2}}|uig=يەكەن دەرياسى|uly=Yeken deryasi|uyy=Yəkən dəryasi|usy=Йəкəн дәряси}}
The '''Yarkand River''' (or '''Yarkent River''') is a [[river]] in the [[Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region]] of western [[People's Republic of China|China]]., originating Itin isthe one[[Karakoram]] ofrange theand headstreamsflowing ofinto the [[Tarim River]]. However, in practice, the river drains into the Shangyou Reservoir and exhausts its supply. During the period 1986 to 2000, it flowed into the Tarim River only once.<ref name="WildererZhu2003">{{citation|last1=Wilderer|first1=Peter A.|last2=Zhu|first2=J.|last3=Schwarzenbeck|first3=N.|title=Water in China|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=OYbmKnx3UmkC&pg=PA5|year=2003|publisher=IWA Publishing|isbn=978-1-84339-501-0|pages=5–}}</ref> ItThe Yarkand River is approximately 1097&nbsp;km (600&nbsp;mi) in length, with an average discharge of {{convert|210|m3/s|cuft/s|abbr=on}}.
The river originates in the [[Karakoram]] range in the south of the [[Kashgar Prefecture]]. A notable tributary of the upper Yarkand River is the [[Shaksgam River]], which is also known in its lower course (before falling into the Yarkand) as the Keleqing River ({{zh|c=克勒青河|p=Kèlèqīng Hé|links=no}}).
A part of the river valley is known to the [[Kyrgyz people]] as '''Raskam''', and the river itself is also called the Raskam River.<ref>S.R. Bakshi, ''Kashmir through Ages'' {{ISBN|81-85431-71-X}} vol 1 p.22, in Google Books</ref> The river is also known as the '''Zarafshan River'''.<ref>[http://geonames.nga.mil/ggmagaz/ NGIA GeoNames search]</ref> The area was once claimed by the ruler of [[Hunza (princely state)|Hunza]].
== Course ==
[[File:叶尔羌河 - Yarkand River - 2015.04 - panoramio (1).jpg|thumb|left|260px|Yarkand River]]
The river originates from the [[Rimo Glacier]] in the [[Karakoram]] range in the south of the [[Kashgar Prefecture]]. AIt notableflows tributaryroughly due north until reaching the foot of the upper[[Kunlun YarkandMountains]]. RiverThen isit flows northwest where it receives waters from the [[Shaksgam River]], which also originates from the Rimo Glacier. The Shaksgam is also known in its lower course (before falling into the Yarkand) as the Keleqing River ({{zh|c=克勒青河|p=Kèlèqīng Hé|links=no}}).
Then Yarkand River flows north, parallel to the [[Tashkurgan]] valley, eventually receiving the waters of the [[Tashkurgan River]].
After this, it turns east and enters the [[Tarim Basin]], forming a rich oasis that waters the [[Yarkant county]]. Continuing northeast, it receives the [[Kashgar River]] from the west, eventually draining into the Shangyou Reservoir.
== History ==
The ancient [[Silk Road|Silk Route]] into South Asia followed the Yarkand River valley. From [[Aksu]], it went via [[Maralbexi County|Maral Bashi]] (Bachu) on the bank of the Yarkand River, then to the city of [[Yarkant County|Yarkand]]. From Yarkand, the route crossed the mountains through the river valleys to reach [[Tashkurgan]]. It crossed the [[Karakoram]] mountains either through the [[Kilik Pass|Kilik]] or [[Mintaka Pass|Mintaka]] pass to reach Gilgit and from there to [[Gandhara]] (the vicinity of present day [[Peshawar]]).<ref>{{citation |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II: The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to AD> 250 |publisher=UNESCO Publishing |ISBN=978-92-3-102846-5 |url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001057/105703eo.pdf |pp=492-493}}</ref><ref>{{citation |last=Bagchi |first=Prabodh Chandra |editor1=Bangwei Wang |editor2=Tansen Sen |title=India and China: Interactions through Buddhism and Diplomacy: A Collection of Essays by Professor Prabodh Chandra Bagchi |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=hrA1DgAAQBAJ&pg=PA186 |date=2011 |publisher=Anthem Press |isbn=978-0-85728-821-9 |pages=186–}}</ref>
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==External links==