Congress of Paris (1856): Difference between revisions

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The '''Congress of Paris''' took place in [[1856]] to make peace after the almost three-year-long [[Crimean War]]. The Congress of Paris was a peace conference held between representatives of the great powers in Europe, which at the time were: [[France]], [[Great Britain]], the [[Ottoman Empire]], [[Sardinia]], [[Russia]], [[Austria]], and [[Prussia]].<ref name="Britannica"/><ref name=Congress>"Congress of Paris". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Paris-Co.html. 2008</ref> They assembled soon after 1 February 1856, when Russia accepted the first set of peace terms after Austria threatened to enter the war on the side of the Allies. It is also notable that the meeting took place in Paris, just at the conclusion of the [[Exposition Universelle (1855)|1855 Universal Expo]] <ref name="Good"/>
 
The Congress of Paris worked out the final terms from [[25 February]] to [[30 March]] 1856. The [[Treaty of Paris (1856)]] was then signed on 30 March 1856 with Russia on one side and France, Great Britain, Ottoman Turkey, and Sardinia-Piedmont on the other.<ref name="Britannica"/> The group of men negotiated at the Quai d’Orsayd'Orsay.<ref name=Barchard>Barchard, David. SETTING THE WORLD TO RIGHTS. http://www.cornucopia.net/highlights35.html. 2008</ref> One of the representatives who attended the Congress of Paris on behalf of the Ottoman Empire was [[Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha]], who was the grand vizier of the Empire.<ref name="Barchard"/> Russia was represented by Prince [[Orlov (family)|Orlov]] and Baron Brunnov. Britain sent their Ambassador to France, who at the time was the [[Henry Wellesley, 1st Earl Cowley|Lord Cowley]]. While other congresses, such as the [[Congress of Vienna]] (1814), spread questions and issues for different committees to resolve, the Congress of Paris resolved everything in one group.<ref>{{Cite EB1911|first=Walter Alison |last=Phillips|wstitle=Congress|volume=6|page=938}}</ref>
 
A significant diplomatic victory was scored by tiny [[Kingdom of Sardinia|Piedmont]] that, although not being yet considered a "great" European power, was nevertheless granted a seat at the Congress by the French Emperor [[Napoleon III]], mostly for having sent an expeditionary corps of 18,000 men to fight against Russia along with France and Prussia, but also possibly because of the intrigues of the very attractive [[Virginia Oldoini|Countess of Castiglione]], who had caught the Emperor's attention. The Piedmontese foreign minister [[Camillo Benso di Cavour]] seized this opportunity to denounce Austrian political and military interference in the Italian peninsula that he said was stifling the wish of the Italian people to choose their own government.
== Results of the Congress ==
[[File:Black sea crimean war.jpg|thumb|350px|Picture of the Territory affected by the Congress. The light green area to the left is the area Russia had to surrender between the [[Danube River]] and [[Moldavia]].]]
The Congress resulted in a pledge by all of the powers to jointly maintain "the integrity of the Ottoman Empire". It also guaranteed Turkey’sTurkey's independence.<ref name="Britannica"/>
 
Also, Russia gave up the left bank of the mouth of the Danube River, including part of [[Bessarabia]]<ref name="Congress"/> to [[Moldavia]] and gave up its claim to the special protection of Christians in the Ottoman Empire. Moldavia and [[Wallachia]] (which together later became [[Romania]] in 1858) along with Serbia were recognized as quasi-independent self-governing principalities under protection of the other European Powers. The sultan of Turkey agreed, in return, to help improve the status of the Christian subjects in his empire.<ref name="Congress"/>