Canoe polo: Difference between revisions

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The game requires excellent teamwork and promotes both general canoeing skills and a range of other techniques unique to the sport. Each team has five players on the pitch (and up to three substitutes), who compete to score in their opponents goal which is suspended two metres above the water. The ball can be thrown by hand, or flicked with the paddle to pass between players and shoot at the goal. Pitches can be set up in swimming pools or any stretch of flat water.
 
The kayaks are specifically designed for polo and are faster and lighter than typical kayaks which give them fantasticsuperior maneuverability. The blades of a polo paddle have thick rounded edges to prevent injury. Paddles are also very lightweight and designed with both pulling power and ball control in mind. Nose and tail boat bumpers, body protection, helmets and face-guards are all compulsory.
 
In [[International Canoe Federation]] nomenclature used in some European countries, chiefly the [[United Kingdom]], the term canoe can refer to a [[kayak]] too.<ref>https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclopædia_Britannica/{{Cite EB1911|wstitle=Canoe}} </ref> The boats in this game are paddled with a double-bladed paddle and are called "kayaks".
 
== History ==
The game is now played in many countries throughout all inhabited continents, for recreation and serious sport. The sport has World Championships every two years and European, Asian, African, and PanAmerican Continental Championships held every year in between World Championship years. Internationally the sport is organized by the Canoe Polo committee of the [[International Canoe Federation]], as one of the disciplines of the sport of canoeing.
 
[[File:Canoe Polo.jpg|thumbnail|Finnish canoe polo championships, [[Lahti]], Finland, 2010]]
 
[[File:Canoe polo practice.JPG|thumb|right|Practicing on the [[River Cam]], England, 2004]]
 
The game is often described as a combination of [[water polo]], [[basketball]] and [[kayaking]]. The tactics and playing of the game are not unlike basketball or water polo but with the added complexity of the boats, which can be used to tackle an opposition player in possession of the ball, or jostle for position within 6&nbsp;meters of the goal.
 
=== Pitch ===
Canoe polo is played either indoors in swimming pools or outdoors on a pitch which should measure 35 meters by 23 meters.<ref>[http://www.canoeicf.com/dms/icf/documents/Disciplines/CAP/Rules/Appendix-3---Field_Diagram/Appendix%203%20-%20Field_Diagram.pdf ICF field diagram]. canoeicf.com {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131203043527/http://www.canoeicf.com/dms/icf/documents/Disciplines/CAP/Rules/Appendix-3---Field_Diagram/Appendix%203%20-%20Field_Diagram.pdf |date=2013-12-03 }}</ref> The boundaries of the pitch are ideally marked using [[floating rope]]s (similar to lane markers in swimming), although for smaller venues the edges of the pool are frequently used.
 
The area approximately 6&nbsp;meters in front of each the goal can be defined as the Zone. This area is where defending players create formations to defend the goal from attackers.
 
=== Timing ===
The game is officially played as a 14- to 20-minute game consisting of two 7- to 10-minute halves. The teams change ends at the half-time period, which is 1 to 3 minutes long.<ref>[http://www.canoeicf.com/dms/icf/documents/Disciplines/CAP/Rules/Canoe-Polo-Rules-2013---14/Canoe%20Polo%20Rules%202013%20%26%2014.pdf ICF Rules]. canoeicf.com</ref> Each half begins with a "sprint" where each team lines up against its goal-line and the ball is thrown into the middle of the pitch by the referee. One player from each team sprints to win possession of the ball.
 
=== Shot clock ===
 
=== Defensive ===
*'''3-13–1''': Three players form a row above the goal keeper, 1 to each side and 1 directly above the keeper. This formation can provide a very solid defensive line, by protecting the sides and the middle. The remaining player patrols the top of the zone with the aim of pressuring the ball and stopping players running into gaps in the defensive line.
*'''2-22–2''': Two players position themselves in front, and to the side of the goal keeper, and block attacking players threatening the goal from the side. The two other players go further forward and towards the middle with the aim of stopping players running in to the zone and to place pressure of the attackers. Looked on from above, it is not dissimilar to a Christmas tree formation. The aim is to force long-shots and errors from the attackers to win the ball back, while protecting the goal.
*'''Five or out''': Every player, including the goal keeper, marks a player and pressures the ball and every pass, trying to force a mistake or gain an interception.
 
Three general principles can be applied when determining the severity of a foul.
 
'''Deliberate foul''' &ndash; A foul where no effort was made to avoid the illegal play. Any deliberate foul should receive a minimum of a green card- either immediately or at the next break in play if playing advantage.
 
'''Dangerous foul''' &ndash; Is significant contact with the opponent’s arm, head or body that may result in personal injury and is illegal.
 
'''Significant contact''' &ndash; Any high impact or continuous contact, that may result in equipment damage or personal injury.
 
== Equipment ==
*'''Buoyancy aids''': A [[buoyancy aid]] is used to protect the players' torso from injury, and must provide an inch of foam on the front, sides and back of the player. All buoyancy aids are numbered to make the player identifiable to the other players, referees and spectators. Buoyancy aids are reversible and are colored with the teams primary and secondary colors on each side. This allows opponents to reverse their buoyancy aids and play in their away colors if the opposing teams primary color is the same or similar.
*'''Helmet and face guard''': Helmets and face-guards are compulsory to protect players head and face from injury caused by accidental contact from paddles or other kayaks.
*'''Goals''': The goals (measuring 1 meter high by 1.5 meters wide) are a frame with a net, suspended 2 meters above the water. A player, acting as goal keeper, defends the goal with their paddle by sticking it up vertically. Special rules concern the goal keeper, such as: the attacking team not being allowed to interfere with or jostle them. The length of the paddles used by the goal keepers are often longer than those used by other players. [[File:Canoe Polo Kayak.jpg|thumb|right|Canoe Polopolo Kayakkayak]]
*'''Kayak''': A special [[kayak]] is used. They are constructed from carbon-kevlar or a similarly lightweight material. This makes them faster and more maneuverable than other kayaks. They are fitted with an inch of protective foam around both ends of the kayak to prevent injury and damage at high speeds.
*'''Paddle''': A [[paddle]] is used to propel the players during the game. The paddle can be used to flick and play the ball. Paddles are strictly forbidden of being played within hands reach of an opposing player to reduce the risk of injury.
*[[International Canoe Federation]]
*[[British Canoe Union]]
*[[USACK]]—USA Canoe/Kayak
 
== References ==
 
== External links ==
{{Commons category|Kayak polo}}
* [http://www.canoepolosyracuse2016.com Official 2016 World Championship page]
* [http://www.canoepolo.com/ CanoePolo.com] — a canoe polo forum
* [http://www.polopage.com/ PoloPage.com] – Canoe Polo Videos
* [http://www.canoeicf.com/icf/Aboutoursport/Canoe-Polo/More-on-Canoe-Polo/Technical-Information.html Technical Information and rules] from the [[International Canoe Federation]]
* {{YouTube|id=m3PMzY--ZkQm3PMzY—ZkQ|title=GER vs ITA, 2010 World Championships, Milan}}—International Canoe Federation clip
 
=== Governing bodies ===