1964 United States presidential election in Alabama: Difference between revisions

standard quote handling in WP;standard Apostrophe/quotation marks in WP; MOS general fixes
(Added source for Alabama being Goldwater's second strongest state in 1964.)
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The early 1960s had seen Alabama as the epicenter of [[African-American civil rights movement (1954-1968)|the black Civil Rights movement]], highlighted by numerous black church bombings by the Ku Klux Klan in "[[Bombingham]]" (the city of [[Birmingham, Alabama|Birmingham)]],<ref>Bullock, Charles S. and Gaddie, Ronald Keith; ''The Triumph of Voting Rights in the South'', pp. 41-42 {{ISBN|0806185309}}</ref> Birmingham city official [[Bull Connor|Eugene “Bull”"Bull" Connor]]’s's use of [[attack dog]]s against protesters opposed to racial discrimination in residential land use, and first-term Governor [[George Wallace]]’s's “stand"stand in the door”door" against the desegregation of the [[University of Alabama]]. During the primaries for selecting Democratic presidential electors, there was bitter fighting in all five [[Deep South]] states; however, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia and South Carolina all chose electors pledged to [[President of the United States|President]] [[Lyndon B. Johnson]].<ref name="CQ">Congressional Quarterly, Incorporated; ''CQ Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report'', vol. 25 (1967), p. 1121</ref>
However, in Alabama, the May 5, 1964 primary chose a set of unpledged Democratic electors,<ref name="CQ"/> by a margin of five-to-one,<ref>McDannald, Alexander Hopkins; ''Yearbook of the Encyclopedia Americana'' (1965), p. 63</ref> whilst Governor [[George Wallace]] refused totally President Johnson’sJohnson's civil rights and [[racial segregation in the United States|desegregation]] legislation via the [[Civil Rights Act of 1964]].<ref>Frederick, Jeff; ''Stand Up for Alabama: Governor George Wallace''; pp. 96-99 {{ISBN|0817315748}}</ref> Unlike in Mississippi with the [[Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party|MFDP]], no effort to challenge this Wallace-sponsored slate with one loyal to the national party was attempted.<ref>Cleghorn, Reece; ‘Who'Who Speaks for Mississippi’Mississippi' ''The Reporter'', August 13, 1944, pp. 31-33</ref> Consequently, Johnson would become the third winning president-elect to not appear on the ballot in Alabama, following on from [[Abraham Lincoln]] in [[United States presidential election in Alabama, 1860|1860]] and [[Harry S. Truman]] in [[United States presidential election in Alabama, 1948|1948]].
Under Wallace’sWallace's guidance the Alabama [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic Party]] placed this slate of unpledged Democratic electors on the ballot,<ref name="Alabama">{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1964/05/03/alabama-expected-to-choose-electors-backed-by-wallace.html|title=Alabama Expected To Choose Electors Backed by Wallace|date=1964-05-03|work=The New York Times|access-date=2017-12-09|language=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.thecrimson.com/article/1964/10/21/flowers-attacks-wallace-democrats-prichmond-flowers/|title=Flowers Attacks Wallace Democrats|last=Denton|first=Herbert H.|date=October 21, 1964|website=The Harvard Crimson|language=en|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2017-12-09}}</ref>, against the advice of some legal scholars,<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1964/06/14/unpledged-votes-are-held-illegal.html|title=Unpledged Votes Are Held Illegal|date=1964-06-14|work=The New York Times|access-date=2017-12-09|language=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>, but after planning to run for president himself (as he would do in [[United States presidential election, 1968|1968]]) decided against this in July.
Initially it was expected that this slate – the only option for mainstream Democrats in Alabama – would be pledged to Wallace himself, but the Governor released them from pledges to vote for him if elected.<ref>Carlson, Jody; ''George C. Wallace and the Politics of Powerlessness: The Wallace Campaigns for the Presidency, 1964-76'', p. 41 {{ISBN|1412824494}}</ref> Once campaigning began, Wallace supported Republican nominee Barry Goldwater<ref>Grimes, Roy; ‘Look'Look Away, Look Away...', ''[[The Victoria Advocate]]'', October 11, 1964, p. 4A</ref> and did nothing to support the unpledged slate against the Arizona Senator, although he did campaign for Democratic candidates for state and local offices.<ref>Cleghord, Reece; ‘Aftermath'Aftermath in Alabama’Alabama'; ''The Reporter'', December 3, 1964, p. 34</ref>
=== Popularity of Goldwater among white voters ===
Republican Barry Goldwater, viewed as a dangerous right-wing extremist in the older Northeastern heartland of the Republican Party,<ref>Leopold, Les; ''The Man Who Hated Work and Loved Labour''; {{ISBN|1933392630}}</ref> was thrashed there as had been uniformly predicted before the poll, with Texas Governor [[John Connally]] saying Goldwater would win only Alabama and Mississippi.<ref>‘At'At Southern Governors’Governors' Meet: Approval of Wallace Proposal Is Unlikely’Unlikely'; ''[[The Dispatch (Lexington)|The Dispatch]]'', October 14, 1964, p. 1</ref>
Nevertheless, his opposition to the pending [[Civil Rights Act of 1964|Civil Rights Act]] and [[Medicare (United States)|Medicare]]<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1144&dat=19641013&id=xWocAAAAIBAJ&sjid=L08EAAAAIBAJ&pg=7056,4910656|title=Medicare Vote Hurt Goldwater|last=Lubell|first=Samuel|date=October 13, 1964|work=The Pittsburgh Press|access-date=December 9, 2017|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=}}</ref> plus his ability to unite white Alabamians of different classes meant Goldwater could capture the "[[Black Belt (region of Alabama)|black belt]]" counties<ref name="Changing">Havard, William C. (editor); ''The Changing Politics of the South''; pp. 440-441 {{ISBN|0807100463}}</ref> that were historically the basis of Alabama’sAlabama's limited-suffrage single-party politics, at a time when 77 percent of blacks still had not registered to vote.<ref>Havard (editor); ''The Changing Politics of the South''; p. 21</ref>
Goldwater did equally well in those [[Appalachia]] counties where Republicans had been competitive in presidential elections even at the height of the "[[Solid South]]".<ref name="Changing" /> Only in the [[North Alabama]] counties of [[Lauderdale County, Alabama|Lauderdale]], [[Colbert County, Alabama|Colbert]], [[Limestone County, Alabama|Limestone]], [[Jackson County, Alabama|Jackson]] and [[Cherokee County, Alabama|Cherokee]] – hostile to Goldwater’sGoldwater's proposal to [[privatization|privatize]] the [[Tennessee Valley Authority]]<ref>McMahon, Kevin J.; Rankin, David M.; Beachler, Donald W. and White, John Kenneth; ''Winning the White House, 2008'', p. 107 {{ISBN|0230607683}}</ref> – and in [[Macon County, Alabama|Macon County]], home of [[Tuskegee University]], did Goldwater not obtain a majority. Even with powerful opposition to TVA privatization, those northern counties voting against Goldwater did so by no more than twelve percent in Limestone County.<ref>David Leip’sLeip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections; [http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/datagraph.php?year=1964&fips=1&f=0&off=0&elect=0 1964 Presidential General Election Data Graphs – Alabama]</ref>
== Milestones ==
{{As of|2016|11|alt=As of the [[United States presidential election in Alabama, 2016|2016 presidential election]]}}, this is the last election in which [[Sumter County, Alabama|Sumter County]], [[Greene County, Alabama|Greene County]], [[Wilcox County, Alabama|Wilcox County]], [[Lowndes County, Alabama|Lowndes County]], and [[Bullock County, Alabama|Bullock County]] voted for the Republican candidate, as well as the last time that Macon County did not vote for the national Democratic candidate.
This was the third occasion when a [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]] nominee carried Alabama, but the first outside of [[Reconstruction era of the United States|Reconstruction]] elections in [[United States presidential election in Alabama, 1868|1868]] and [[United States presidential election in Alabama, 1872|1872]], when [[Ulysses S. Grant]] carried the state. Despite Johnson’sJohnson's landslide victory that year, winning 61.1 percent of the popular vote, the highest percentage to date, he also lost to Goldwater in four other previously solidly Democratic [[Southern United States|Southern states]] – [[United States presidential election in Louisiana, 1964|Louisiana]], [[United States presidential election in Mississippi, 1964|Mississippi]], [[United States presidential election in South Carolina, 1964|South Carolina]] and [[United States presidential election in Georgia, 1964|Georgia]].
With 69.45% of the popular vote, Alabama would prove to be Goldwater's second strongest state in the 1964 election after neighboring Mississippi.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/stats.php?year=1964&f=0&off=0&elect=0|title=1964 Presidential Election Statistics|publisher=Dave Leip’sLeip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections|date= |accessdate=2018-03-05}}</ref>.