1964 United States presidential election in Alabama: Difference between revisions

→‎Background: article referred to Birmingham but not by name - added it
(Better wording and information about the election)
(→‎Background: article referred to Birmingham but not by name - added it)
The early 1960s had seen Alabama as the epicenter of [[African-American civil rights movement (1954-1968)|the black Civil Rights movement]], highlighted by numerous black church bombings by the Ku Klux Klan in [[Bombingham|“Bombingham”]] (the city of [[Birmingham, Alabama|Birmingham)]],<ref>Bullock, Charles S. and Gaddie, Ronald Keith; ''The Triumph of Voting Rights in the South'', pp. 41-42 {{ISBN|0806185309}}</ref> Birmingham city official [[Bull Connor|Eugene “Bull” Connor]]’s use of [[attack dog]]s against protestorsprotesters opposed to racial discrimination in residential land use, and first-term Governor [[George Wallace]]’s “stand in the door” against the desegregation of the [[University of Alabama]]. During the primaries for selecting Democratic presidential electors, there was bitter fighting in all five [[Deep South]] states; however, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia and South Carolina all chose electors pledged to [[President of the United States|President]] [[Lyndon B. Johnson]].<ref name="CQ">Congressional Quarterly, Incorporated; ''CQ Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report'', vol. 25 (1967), p. 1121</ref>
However, in Alabama, the May 5, 1964 primary chose a set of unpledged Democratic electors,<ref name="CQ"/> by a margin of five-to-one,<ref>McDannald, Alexander Hopkins; ''Yearbook of the Encyclopedia Americana'' (1965), p. 63</ref> whilst Governor [[George Wallace]] refused totally President Johnson’s civil rights and [[racial segregation in the United States|desegregation]] legislation via the [[Civil Rights Act of 1964]].<ref>Frederick, Jeff; ''Stand Up for Alabama: Governor George Wallace''; pp. 96-99 {{ISBN|0817315748}}</ref> Unlike in Mississippi with the [[Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party|MFDP]], no effort to challenge this Wallace-sponsored slate with one loyal to the national party was attempted.<ref>Cleghorn, Reece; ‘Who Speaks for Mississippi’ ''The Reporter'', August 13, 1944, pp. 31-33</ref> Consequently, Johnson would become the third winning president-elect to not appear on the ballot in Alabama, following on from [[Abraham Lincoln]] in [[United States presidential election in Alabama, 1860|1860]] and [[Harry S. Truman]] in [[United States presidential election in Alabama, 1948|1948]].