Vācaspati Miśra: Difference between revisions

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|caption =
|birth_date = unknown, 9th/10th century CE<ref name=jfowlerpor129>Jeaneane Fowler (2002), Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism, Sussex Academic Press, {{ISBN|978-1898723943}}, page 129</ref>
|birth_place= Hindu [[India]]
|birth_name =
|death_date = unknown, 9th/10th century CE<ref name=jfowlerpor129/>
|known =
|philosophy = [[Advaita Vedanta]], Hinduism in Hindu India
{{Hindu philosophy}}
'''Vachaspati Mishra''' was a 9th- or 10th-century CE [[India|Hindu India]]n [[philosopher]]. He wrote so broadly that he was known as "one for whom all systems are his own", or in Sanskrit, a ''sarva-tantra-sva-tantra''.<ref name=":0">{{Cite journal|last=Phillips|first=Stephen|date=2015|title=Seeing From the Other’s Point of View: Counter the Schismatic Interpretation of Vācaspati Miśra|url=http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.apaonline.org/resource/collection/2EAF6689-4B0D-4CCB-9DC6-FB926D8FF530/AsianV14n2.pdf|journal=APA Newsletter: Asian and Asian-American Philosophers and Philosophies|volume=14:2|pages=4--8}}</ref> Vācaspati Miśra was a prolific scholar and his writings are extensive, including [[bhasya]] (commentaries) on key texts of almost every 9th-century school of [[Hindu philosophy]] with notes on non-Hindu or ''nāstika'' traditions such as [[Buddhism]] and [[Charvaka|Carvaka]].<ref>{{cite book|title=''Hindu Realism''|author=Jagadisha Chandra Chatterji|pages=vi|year=1912}}</ref><ref name=larsonvm301>Gerald James Larson and Ram Shankar Bhattacharya (1987), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 4, Princeton University Press, pages 301-312</ref> He also wrote one non-commentary, ''Tattvabindu,'' or ''Drop of Truth'', which focuses on Mīmāṃsā theories of sentence meaning. Some of his works are lost to history or yet to be found.<ref name=larsonvm301/>
Little is known about Vācaspati Miśra's life, and the earliest text that has been dated with certainty is from 840 CE, and he was at least one generation younger than Adi Śaṅkara.<ref>{{cite book |last=Isaeva |first=Natalia |title=Shankara and Indian Philosophy |year=1993 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=USA |isbn=978-0-7914-1281-7|pages=85-86}}</ref> However, an alternate date for the same text may be 976 CE, according to some scholars, a confusion that is based on whether Hindu Śaka or Vikrama era calendar is used for the dating purposes.<ref name=larsonvm301/> His scholarship is revered in the Hindu tradition, which believes that he was a Maithila [[Brahmin]] from Andhra Tharhi [[Bihar]].<ref name=larsonvm301/>
[[Bihar]].<ref name=larsonvm301/>
==Primary works==
Vācaspati Miśra is credited with influential commentaries such as ''Tattvakaumudi'' on [[Samkhyakarika|Sāṃkhyakārika]],<ref>{{cite book |last=Isaeva |first=Natalia |title=Shankara and Indian Philosophy |year=1993 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=USA |isbn=978-0-7914-1281-7|page=124}}</ref> ''Nyāyasucinibandha'' on [[Nyaya Sutras|Nyāya-sūtras]],<ref name=jfowlerpor129/> various important texts of [[Advaita Vedanta|Advaita Vedānta]],<ref>{{cite book |last=Isaeva |first=Natalia |title=Shankara and Indian Philosophy |year=1993 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=USA |isbn=978-0-7914-1281-7|page=66}}</ref> ''Nyāyakānika'' (an Advaita work on science of reason), ''Tattvasamikṣa'' (lost work), ''Nyāya-vārttika-tātparyaṭīkā'' (a subcommentary on the ''Nyāya-sūtras''), ''Tattva-vaiśāradī'' on [[Yogasutra|Yogasūtra]], and others.<ref name=larsonvm301/>
While some known works of Vācaspati Miśra are now lost, others exist in numerous numbers. Over ninety medieval era manuscripts, for example, in different parts of Hindu India have been found of his ''Tattvakaumudi'', which literally means "Hindu Moonlight on the Truth".<ref name=larsonvm301/> This suggests that his work was sought and influential. A critical edition of ''Tattvakaumudi'' was published by Srinivasan in 1967.<ref name=larsonvm301/>
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