Arsenate: Difference between revisions

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Arsenate can replace inorganic [[phosphate]] in the step of [[glycolysis]] that produces [[1,3-bisphosphoglycerate]] from [[glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate]]. This yields [[1-arseno-3-phosphoglycerate]] instead, which is unstable and quickly hydrolyzes, forming the next intermediate in the pathway, [[3-phosphoglycerate]]. Therefore, glycolysis proceeds, but the [[Adenosine triphosphate|ATP]] molecule that would be generated from [[1,3-bisphosphoglycerate]] is lost – arsenate is an uncoupler of glycolysis, explaining its toxicity.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Hughes |first=Michael F. |title=Arsenic toxicity and potential mechanisms of action |journal=[[Toxicology Letters]] |year=2002 |issue=133 |pages=4 |url= }}{{dead link|date=July 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}</ref>
As with other arsenic compounds, arsenite canbinds alsoto inhibit[[lipoic acid]],<ref></ref> inhibiting the conversion of [[pyruvate]] into [[acetyl-CoA]], blocking the [[Krebs cycle]] and therefore resulting in further loss of ATP.<ref>{{citation|title=Arsenic Toxicity Case Study|author1=Kim Gehle|author2=Selene Chou|author3=William S. Beckett|publisher=Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry|url=|date=2009-10-01}}</ref>
==Bacteria using and generating arsenate==