1964 United States presidential election in Alabama: Difference between revisions

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In the [[United States presidential election, 1964|1964 United States presidential election]], [[Alabama]] was the only state in which the [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic Party]] nominee, [[President of the United States|President]] [[Lyndon B. Johnson]] did not appear on the ballot, as then-Governor [[George Wallace]] did not accept his civil rights and [[racial segregation in the United States|desegregation]] legislation.<ref>Frederick, Jeff; ''Stand Up for Alabama: Governor George Wallace''; pp. 96-99 {{ISBN|0817315748}}</ref> Wallace allowed the state [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic Party]] to place a set of unpledged Democratic electors on the ballot, but after planning to run for President himself (as he would do in 1968) decided against this in July<ref>Rohler, Lloyd Earl; ''George Wallace: Conservative Populist'', p. 40 {{ISBN|0313311196}}</ref> and supported Republican nominee Barry Goldwater.<ref>Grimes, Roy; ‘Look Away, Look Away...’, ''[[The Victoria Advocate]]'', October 11, 1964, p. 4A</ref> This was the third time a winning President-elect did not appear on the ballot in Alabama, following on from [[Abraham Lincoln]] in [[United States presidential election, 1860|1860]] and [[Harry S. Truman]] in [[United States presidential election in Alabama, 1948|1948]].
 
== Background ==
Republican Barry Goldwater, viewed as a dangerous right-wing extremist in the older Northeastern heartland of the Republican Party,<ref>Leopold, Les; ''The Man Who Hated Work and Loved Labour''; {{ISBN|1933392630}}</ref> was thrashed there as had been uniformly predicted before the poll, with Texas Governor John Connally saying Goldwater would win only Alabama and Mississippi.<ref>‘At Southern Governors’ Meet: Approval of Wallace Proposal Is Unlikely’; ''[[The Dispatch (Lexington)|The Dispatch]]'', October 14, 1964, p. 1</ref> Nevertheless, his opposition to the pending [[Civil Rights Act of 1964|Civil Rights Act]] and Medicare<ref>Lubell, Samuel; ‘Medicare Vote Hurt Goldwater’; ''[[The Pittsburgh Press]]''; October 13, 1964</ref> plus his ability to unite white Alabamans of different classes meant Goldwater could capture the “[[Black Belt (region of Alabama)|black belt]]” counties<ref name="Changing">Havard, William C. (editor); ''The Changing Politics of the South''; pp. 440-441 {{ISBN|0807100463}}</ref> that were historically the basis of Alabama’s limited-suffrage single-party politics, at a time when 77 percent of blacks still had not registered to vote.<ref>Havard (editor); ''The Changing Politics of the South''; p. 21</ref> Goldwater did equally well in those [[Appalachia]] counties where Republicans had been competitive in Presidential elections even at the height of the “[[Solid South]]”.<ref name="Changing"/> Only in the [[North Alabama]] counties of [[Lauderdale County, Alabama|Lauderdale]], [[Colbert County, Alabama|Colbert]], [[Limestone County, Alabama|Limestone]], [[Jackson County, Alabama|Jackson]] and [[Cherokee County, Alabama|Cherokee]] – hostile to Goldwater’s proposal to [[privatization|privatize]] the [[Tennessee Valley Authority]]<ref>McMahon, Kevin J.; Rankin, David M.; Beachler, Donald W. and White, John Kenneth; ''Winning the White House, 2008'', p. 107 {{ISBN|0230607683}}</ref> – and in [[Macon County, Alabama|Macon County]], home of [[Tuskegee University]], did Goldwater not obtain a majority. As of 2017, this is the last election in which [[Sumter County, Alabama|Sumter County]], [[Greene County, Alabama|Greene County]], [[Wilcox County, Alabama|Wilcox County]], [[Lowndes County, Alabama|Lowndes County]], and [[Bullock County, Alabama|Bullock County]] voted for the Republican candidate, as well as the last time that Macon County did not vote for the Democratic candidate. Even with powerful opposition to TVA privatization, those northern counties voting against Goldwater did so by no more than twelve percent in Limestone County.<ref>David Leip’s Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections; [http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/datagraph.php?year=1964&fips=1&f=0&off=0&elect=0 1964 Presidential General Election Data Graphs – Alabama]</ref>
 
=== The removal of Johnson from the ballots ===
Wallace allowed the state [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic Party]] to place a set of unpledged Democratic electors on the ballot<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1964/05/03/alabama-expected-to-choose-electors-backed-by-wallace.html|title=Alabama Expected To Choose Electors Backed by Wallace|date=1964-05-03|work=The New York Times|access-date=2017-12-09|language=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.thecrimson.com/article/1964/10/21/flowers-attacks-wallace-democrats-prichmond-flowers/|title=Flowers Attacks Wallace Democrats|last=Denton|first=Herbert H.|date=October 21, 1964|website=The Harvard Crimson|language=en|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2017-12-09}}</ref>, against the advice of some legal scholars<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1964/06/14/unpledged-votes-are-held-illegal.html|title=Unpledged Votes Are Held Illegal|date=1964-06-14|work=The New York Times|access-date=2017-12-09|language=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>, but after planning to run for President himself (as he would do in [[United States presidential election, 1968|1968]]) decided against this in July<ref>Rohler, Lloyd Earl; ''George Wallace: Conservative Populist'', p. 40 {{ISBN|0313311196}}</ref> and supported Republican nominee Barry Goldwater.<ref>Grimes, Roy; ‘Look Away, Look Away...’, ''[[The Victoria Advocate]]'', October 11, 1964, p. 4A</ref>
 
This was the third time a winning President-elect did not appear on the ballot in Alabama, following on from [[Abraham Lincoln]] in [[United States presidential election, 1860|1860]] and [[Harry S. Truman]] in [[United States presidential election in Alabama, 1948|1948]].
 
=== Popularity of Goldwater among White voters ===
Republican Barry Goldwater, viewed as a dangerous right-wing extremist in the older Northeastern heartland of the Republican Party,<ref>Leopold, Les; ''The Man Who Hated Work and Loved Labour''; {{ISBN|1933392630}}</ref> was thrashed there as had been uniformly predicted before the poll, with Texas Governor [[John Connally]] saying Goldwater would win only Alabama and Mississippi.<ref>‘At Southern Governors’ Meet: Approval of Wallace Proposal Is Unlikely’; ''[[The Dispatch (Lexington)|The Dispatch]]'', October 14, 1964, p. 1</ref>
 
== Results ==
Nevertheless, his opposition to the pending [[Civil Rights Act of 1964|Civil Rights Act]] and [[Medicare (United States)|Medicare]]<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1144&dat=19641013&id=xWocAAAAIBAJ&sjid=L08EAAAAIBAJ&pg=7056,4910656|title=Medicare Vote Hurt Goldwater|last=Lubell|first=Samuel|date=October 13, 1964|work=The Pittsburgh Press|access-date=December 9, 2017|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=}}</ref> plus his ability to unite white Alabamans of different classes meant Goldwater could capture the “[[Black Belt (region of Alabama)|black belt]]” counties<ref name="Changing">Havard, William C. (editor); ''The Changing Politics of the South''; pp. 440-441 {{ISBN|0807100463}}</ref> that were historically the basis of Alabama’s limited-suffrage single-party politics, at a time when 77 percent of blacks still had not registered to vote.<ref>Havard (editor); ''The Changing Politics of the South''; p. 21</ref>
 
Goldwater did equally well in those [[Appalachia]] counties where Republicans had been competitive in Presidential elections even at the height of the “[[Solid South]]”.<ref name="Changing" /> Only in the [[North Alabama]] counties of [[Lauderdale County, Alabama|Lauderdale]], [[Colbert County, Alabama|Colbert]], [[Limestone County, Alabama|Limestone]], [[Jackson County, Alabama|Jackson]] and [[Cherokee County, Alabama|Cherokee]] – hostile to Goldwater’s proposal to [[privatization|privatize]] the [[Tennessee Valley Authority]]<ref>McMahon, Kevin J.; Rankin, David M.; Beachler, Donald W. and White, John Kenneth; ''Winning the White House, 2008'', p. 107 {{ISBN|0230607683}}</ref> – and in [[Macon County, Alabama|Macon County]], home of [[Tuskegee University]], did Goldwater not obtain a majority.
 
== Milestones ==
As of 2017, this is the last election in which [[Sumter County, Alabama|Sumter County]], [[Greene County, Alabama|Greene County]], [[Wilcox County, Alabama|Wilcox County]], [[Lowndes County, Alabama|Lowndes County]], and [[Bullock County, Alabama|Bullock County]] voted for the Republican candidate, as well as the last time that Macon County did not vote for the Democratic candidate. Even with powerful opposition to TVA privatization, those northern counties voting against Goldwater did so by no more than twelve percent in Limestone County.<ref>David Leip’s Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections; [http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/datagraph.php?year=1964&fips=1&f=0&off=0&elect=0 1964 Presidential General Election Data Graphs – Alabama]</ref>
 
This was the third occasion when a [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]] nominee carried Alabama, but the first outside of [[Reconstruction era of the United States|Reconstruction]] elections in [[United States presidential election, 1868|1868]] and [[United States presidential election, 1872|1872]], when [[Ulysses S. Grant]] carried the state. Despite Johnson’s landslide victory that year, winning 61.1 percent of the popular vote, the highest percentage to date, he also lost to Goldwater in four other previously solidly Democratic [[Southern United States|Southern states]] – [[United States presidential elections in Louisiana|Louisiana]], [[United States presidential election in Mississippi, 1964|Mississippi]], [[United States presidential elections in South Carolina|South Carolina]] and [[United States presidential election in Georgia, 1964|Georgia]].