Josephine Jewell Dodge: Difference between revisions

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==Early life and education==
Josephine Marshall Jewell was born in [[Hartford, Connecticut]] in 1855. Her father, [[Marshall Jewell]], was Governor of Connecticut and United States Postmaster General, among other government posts. Josephine Jewell left [[Vassar College]] without a degree in 1873 to accompany her father to [[St. Petersburg, Russia]] when he was serving as a diplomat there.<ref name="Notable">[ "Josephine Marshall Jewell Dodge"] in Edward T. James, Janet Wilson James, and Paul S. Boyer, eds., ''Notable American Women, 1607-1950, A Biographical Dictionary, vol. 2'' (Harvard University Press 1971): 492-493. {{ISBN |9780674627345}}</ref>
Josephine Jewell Dodge sponsored the Virginia Day Nursery in New York City, a facility intended to provide childcare to working mothers on the Lower East Side.<ref>Susan Goodier, [ ''No Votes for Women: The New York State Anti-Suffrage Movement''] (University of Illinois Press 2013): 30. {{ISBN |9780252094675}}</ref> Her program developed in 1888 to become the Jewell Day Nursery, which had a greater educational component.<ref>L. P. S., [ "The Late Mrs. Arthur M. Dodge"] ''New York Times'' (March 16, 1928): 16.</ref> Dodge demonstrated her methods at the [[Columbian Exposition]] in 1893,<ref>[ "Child Care"] in Alice O'Connor, ed., ''Poverty in the United States: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics and Policy'' (ABC-CLIO 2004): 152. {{ISBN |9781576075975}}</ref> and in 1895 she was founder and first president of the Association of Day Nurseries of New York City. By 1898 she was president of the National Federation of Day Nurseries.<ref name="Notable" />
[[File:Opposed to suffrage.jpg|thumb|Headquarters of NAOWS, led by Josephine Jewell Dodge]]
Dodge's anti-suffrage activities occupied her later career. In 1911, she helped found and became president of the National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage,<ref>[ "Low Cut Gowns and High Morals Suffrage and Sex; Mrs. Arthur M. Dodge Tells Women Decent Dress is More Important than Votes"] ''The Courier'' (May 11, 1913): 1. via [[]] {{open access}}</ref> a post she held for six years; she also edited the organization's publication, "Woman's Protest." She was the target of a verbal attack at a 1915 "riot" between suffrage and anti-suffrage activists in Washington D. C.<ref>[ "Near Riot When Suffragists and Antis Meet at Hearing Before Democratic Committee"] ''Washington Herald'' (December 8, 1915): 1. via [[]] {{open access}}</ref> That same year, she spoke against suffrage in New Jersey, saying "The life of the average woman is not so ordered as to give her first hand knowledge of those things which are the essentials of sound government...She is worthily employed in other departments of life, and the vote will not help her fulfill her obligations therein."<ref>[ "Woman Suffrage Battle Opens in New Jersey As Antis Unlimber Big Guns; Monster Mass Meeting Held in Trenton"] ''Chatham Press'' (May 29, 1915): 7. via [[]] {{open access}}</ref> She countered accusations that anti-suffrage activists were supported by "liquor interests" in hopes of preventing prohibition.<ref>[ "Mrs. Dodge Charges A Poison-Pen Plot; Declares Suffragists, with Endless Chain Postals, Are Repeating Liquor Attacks"] ''New York Times'' (October 30, 1916): 9.</ref>