James Ford Rhodes: Difference between revisions

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[[Image:James Ford Rhodes, 1902.jpg|thumb|300px250px|Rhodes in 1902.]]
'''James Ford Rhodes''' (May 1, 1848 – January 22, 1927), was an [[United States|American]] [[industrialist]] and [[historian]] born in [[Cleveland, Ohio]]. After earning a fortune in the iron, coal, and steel industries by 1885, he retired from business. He devoted his life to historical research and publishing a seven-volume history of the United States beginning in 1850; his work was published from 1893-1906. He published an eighth volume in 1920. His work, ''History of the Civil War, 1861-1865'' (1918), won the second-ever [[Pulitzer Prize for History]] that year.
Sharp criticism came from [[John R. Lynch]], a black leader in Mississippi's Reconstruction who has served in Congress. Lynch said:
:So far as the Reconstruction period is concerned, it is not only inaccurate and unreliable but it is the most biased, partisan and prejudiced historical work I have ever read....He believed it was a grave mistake to have given the colored men at the South the right to vote, and in order to make the alleged historical facts harmonize with his own views upon this point, he took particular pains to magnify the virtues and minimize the faults of the Democrats and to magnify the faults and minimize the virtues of the Republicans, the colored men especially.""<ref>{{cite journal |first=John R. |last=Lynch, "|title=Some Historical Errors of James Ford Rhodes", ''|journal=The Journal of Negro History'', |volume=2# |issue=4 (|year=1917) pp 345-68 at|pages=345–68 [pp. 345, 353] [http://www.|jstor.org/stable/=2713394 in JSTOR]}}</ref>
Rhodes said that giving the vote to blacks was an attack on civilization. Lynch replied that the laws allowed time for transition away from the society that was built on slavery: "But for the adoption of the Congressional plan of Reconstruction and the subsequent legislation of the nation along the same line, the abolition of slavery through the ratification of the 13th Amendment would have been in name only, a legal and constitutional myth."<ref>Lynch p 363.</ref> Rhodes concluded that Reconstruction had failed. Lynch disagreed. While not all its goals had been accomplished, ratification of the 14th and 15th Amendments made it a success, as all people of color were granted citizenship, which could not be restricted by race or color, and they were granted suffrage nationally. Lynch argued that, "The failure of the Reconstruction legislation was not due so much to the change of sentiment in the North as an unwise interpretation of these laws."<ref>Lynch p 364-65.</ref>
==Further reading==
* Cruden, Robert. ''James Ford Rhodes: The Man, The Historian, and His Work'' (1961)
* Lynch, John R., "Some Historical Errors of James Ford Rhodes" ''The Journal of Negro History'', vol.2/4 (October 1917).
* Pressly, Thomas J. Pressly, ''Americans Interpret their Civil War'' (1954) pp 166-you a81.
==External links==
* {{Gutenberg author | id=Rhodes,+James+Ford | name=James Ford Rhodes}}