Vācaspati Miśra: Difference between revisions

Fixed typographical errors in diacritics, inserted additional references, revised description of Vācaspati to reflect his status as a sarva-tantra-sva-tantra not a member of a particular school, corrected Tattva-bindu section.
(Fixed typographical errors in diacritics, inserted additional references, revised description of Vācaspati to reflect his status as a sarva-tantra-sva-tantra not a member of a particular school, corrected Tattva-bindu section.)
{{Hindu philosophy}}
 
'''Vācaspati Miśra''' was a 9th- or 10th-century CE [[India]]n [[philosopher]]. ofHe [[Advaitawrote Vedanta]]so schoolbroadly ofthat [[Hinduism]]he was known as "one for whom all systems are his own", or in Sanskrit, a ''sarva-tantra-sva-tantra''.<ref name=jfowlerpor129/><ref":0">{{cite bookCite journal|last=Isaeva Phillips|first=Natalia Stephen|date=2015|title=ShankaraSeeing andFrom Indianthe PhilosophyOther’s |year=1993Point |publisher=Stateof UniversityView: ofCounter Newthe YorkSchismatic PressInterpretation |location=USAof Vācaspati Miśra|isbnurl=978http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.apaonline.org/resource/collection/2EAF6689-04B0D-79144CCB-12819DC6-7FB926D8FF530/AsianV14n2.pdf|pagesjournal=66-67}}</ref>APA HisNewsletter: ideasAsian areand sometimes called the [[Bhāmatī]] subAsian-schoolAmerican ofPhilosophers Advaita,and a name based on the title of his commentary on ''BrahmaPhilosophies|volume=14:2|pages=4-sūtra-bhāṣya'' of [[Adi Shankara]].8}}</ref> VachaspatiVācaspati Miśra was a prolific scholar and his writings are extensive, including [[bhasya]] (commentaries) on key texts of almost every 9th-century school of [[Hindu philosophy]] with notes on heterodoxnon-Hindu or ''nāstika'' traditions such as [[Buddhism]] and [[Charvaka|Carvaka]].<ref>{{cite book|title=''Hindu Realism''|author=Jagadisha Chandra Chatterji|pages=vi|year=1912}}</ref><ref name=larsonvm301>Gerald James Larson and Ram Shankar Bhattacharya (1987), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 4, Princeton University Press, pages 301-312</ref> He also wrote one non-commentary, ''Tattvabindu.,'' or ''Drop of Truth'', which focuses on Mīmāṃsā theories of sentence meaning. Some of his works are lost to history or yet to be found.<ref name=larsonvm301/>
 
Little is known about VacaspatiVācaspati MishraMiśra's life, and the earliest text that has been dated with certainty is from 840 CE, and he was at least one generation younger than Adi ShankaraŚaṅkara.<ref>{{cite book |last=Isaeva |first=Natalia |title=Shankara and Indian Philosophy |year=1993 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=USA |isbn=978-0-7914-1281-7|pages=85-86}}</ref> However, an alternate date for the same text may be 976 CE, according to some scholars, a confusion that is based on whether Hindu SakaŚaka or Vikrama era calendar is used for the dating purposes.<ref name=larsonvm301/> His scholarship is revered in the Hindu tradition, which believes that he was a Maithila [[Brahmin]] from [[Bihar]].<ref name=larsonvm301/>
 
==Primary works==
{{Refimprove-section|date=January 2008}}
''Tattvabindu'' is his original work, wherein he develops principles of [[hermeneutics]], and discusses the "Theory of Meaning" for the VedantaMīmāṃā school of Hindu philosophy.<ref name=larsonvm301/> This is an influential work, and attempted to resolve some of the interpretation disputes on classical Sanskrit texts.<ref name=larsonvm301/>
 
Vācaspati examines fourfive competing theories of linguistic meaning:<ref name=":0" /><ref>{{cnCite book|datetitle=JanuaryContribution 2016of Vācaspati Miśra to Indian Philosoph|last=Ranganath|first=S.|publisher=Pratibha Prakashan|year=1999|isbn=|location=Delhi|pages=}}</ref>
*[[Mandana Misra|Mandana Mira]]'s (''sphoṭavāda''), which involves grasping the meaning of a word or sentence by perceiving a ''[[sphoṭa]]'' or single holistic sound, which is distinct from the elements (sounds or characters) that make up the word or sentence;
*the [[Nyāya]] theory which involves concatenating the memory traces (''saṃskāra'') of momentary components of a word or sentence when we hear the final momentary component;
*the similar [[Mimamsa|Mīmāmsā]] theory, according to which our grasp of the meaning of a sentence lies in the memory traces created by the words; and
*the [[Prābhākara Mīmāmsā]] theory, ''anvitābhidhānavāda'', according"the toview on which thedenotation meaningis ofconstituted aby what is connected." On this view, sentence-meaning is derived from the meanings of its words, each of which hasis anfully individualgiven meaningonly in the sentence as well as havingby syntactic relations with the other words &mdash; no ''sphoṭa'' or memory traces are required.; and
*the Bhāṭṭa Mīmāṃsā theory, ''abhihitānvayavāda,'' or "the view on which connection (anvaya) is constituted by what has been denoted." On this view, word-meaning is denoted entirely first (''abhihita'') and then individual word-meanings are connected by means of ''lakṣaṇā'' (implication.
Vācaspati concurs with the Bhāṭṭa view, when he employs in other contexts, such as the Nyāya sub-commentary, the ''Nyāya-vārttika-tātparya-ṭīkā,'' and the Tattva-vaiśāradī.<ref name=":0" />
 
==Secondary works: BhasyaBhāṣya==
After examining each of these theories, Vācaspati presents his own theory, ''abhihitānvayavāda'', according to which understanding of the meaning of a whole sentence is reached by inferring it, in a separate act of ''lakṣanā'' or implication, from the individual meanings of the constituent words.
VacaspatiVācaspati MisraMiśra is credited with influential commentaries such as ''Tattvakaumudi'' on [[Samkhyakarika|Sāṃkhyakārika]],<ref>{{cite book |last=Isaeva |first=Natalia |title=Shankara and Indian Philosophy |year=1993 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=USA |isbn=978-0-7914-1281-7|page=124}}</ref> ''NyayasucinibandhaNyāyasucinibandha'' on [[Nyaya Sutras|Nyāya-sūtras]],<ref name=jfowlerpor129/> various important texts of [[Advaita Vedanta|Advaita Vedānta]],<ref>{{cite book |last=Isaeva |first=Natalia |title=Shankara and Indian Philosophy |year=1993 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=USA |isbn=978-0-7914-1281-7|page=66}}</ref> ''NyayakanikaNyāyakānika'' (an Advaita work on science of reason), ''TattvasamiksaTattvasamikṣa'' (lost work), ''NyayaNyāya-varttikavārttika-tatparyatikatātparyaṭīkā'' (a tertiary worksubcommentary on the science of logic and reasoning''Nyāya-sūtras''), ''TattvavaisaradiTattva-vaiśāradī'' on [[Yogasutra|Yogasūtra]], and others.<ref name=larsonvm301/>
 
While some known works of VacaspatiVācaspati MisraMiśra are now lost, others exist in numerous numbers. Over ninety medieval era manuscripts, for example, in different parts of India have been found of his ''Tattvakaumudi'', which literally means "Moonlight on the Truth".<ref name=larsonvm301/> This suggests that his work was sought and influential. A critical edition of ''Tattvakaumudi'' was published by Srinivasan in 1967.<ref name=larsonvm301/>
==Secondary works: Bhasya==
Vacaspati Misra is credited with influential commentaries such as ''Tattvakaumudi'' on [[Samkhyakarika]],<ref>{{cite book |last=Isaeva |first=Natalia |title=Shankara and Indian Philosophy |year=1993 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=USA |isbn=978-0-7914-1281-7|page=124}}</ref> ''Nyayasucinibandha'' on [[Nyaya Sutras]],<ref name=jfowlerpor129/> various important texts of [[Advaita Vedanta]],<ref>{{cite book |last=Isaeva |first=Natalia |title=Shankara and Indian Philosophy |year=1993 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=USA |isbn=978-0-7914-1281-7|page=66}}</ref> ''Nyayakanika'' (an Advaita work on science of reason), ''Tattvasamiksa'' (lost work), ''Nyaya-varttika-tatparyatika'' (a tertiary work on the science of logic and reasoning), ''Tattvavaisaradi'' on [[Yogasutra]], and others.<ref name=larsonvm301/>
 
While some known works of Vacaspati Misra are now lost, others exist in numerous numbers. Over ninety medieval era manuscripts, for example, in different parts of India have been found of his ''Tattvakaumudi'', which literally means "Moonlight on the Truth".<ref name=larsonvm301/> This suggests that his work was sought and influential. A critical edition of ''Tattvakaumudi'' was published by Srinivasan in 1967.<ref name=larsonvm301/>
 
==References==
 
==External links==
* [http://faculty.washington.edu/kpotter/ckeyt/txt3.htm Bibliography of VacaspatiVācaspati Mishra's works, Item 530], Karl Potter, University of Washington
 
{{Indian Philosophy}}