Urban density: Difference between revisions

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It is commonly asserted that higher density cities are more sustainable than low density cities. Much urban [[Urban planning|planning theory]], particularly in North America, the UK, Australia and New Zealand has been developed premised on raising urban densities, such as [[New Urbanism]], [[Transit-oriented development]], and [[Smart growth]]. {{Citation needed|date=November 2014}}
 
However, the link between urban density and aspects of [[sustainability]] remains a contested area of planning theory{{Citation needed|date=November 2014}}.<ref>{{Cite journal|url = http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es4034364|title = Spatial Distribution of U.S. Household Carbon Footprints Reveals Suburbanization Undermines Greenhouse Gas Benefits of Urban Population Density|last = Jones|first = Christopher|datepublisher = Energy and Resources Group, ‡GoldmanGoldman School of Public Policy, and §Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California |pages= pp 895–902|journal = Environmental Science and Technology|accessdate = December 13, Berkeley2013|doi = 10.1021/es4034364|pmid = }}</ref> [[Jan Gehl]], Californiaprominent 94720Urban Designer and expert on [[sustainable urbanism]], Unitedargues that low-density, dispersed cities are unsustainable as they are [[Automobile dependency|automobile dependent]]. A minority, such as Randy O'Toole of the Libertarian [[Cato Institute]], counter that raising densities results in more expensive real estate, greater road congestion and more localized air pollution. Others counter that traffic congestion is a result not of population density but of parking capacity.<ref>{{cite web |title=More density does not equal more [car] traffic |author=Jacobsen, Shaun |date={{date|2014-01-14|iso}} |quote=...tall buildings don’t create traffic. Cars create traffic. If we want less [automobile] traffic on the streets, we need to build less capacity for them, including parking. |url=http://transitized.com/2014/01/14/density-equal-car-traffic/ |publisher=Transitized}}</ref> At a broader level, there is evidence to indicate a strong negative correlation between the total energy consumption of a city and its overall urban density, i.e. the lower the density, the more energy Statesconsumed.<ref>
Environ. Sci. Technol., 2014, 48 (2), pp 895–902|journal = Environmental Science and Technology|accessdate = December 13, 2013|doi = 10.1021/es4034364|pmid = }}</ref> [[Jan Gehl]], prominent Urban Designer and expert on [[sustainable urbanism]], argues that low-density, dispersed cities are unsustainable as they are [[Automobile dependency|automobile dependent]]. A minority, such as Randy O'Toole of the Libertarian [[Cato Institute]], counter that raising densities results in more expensive real estate, greater road congestion and more localized air pollution. Others counter that traffic congestion is a result not of population density but of parking capacity.<ref>{{cite web |title=More density does not equal more [car] traffic |author=Jacobsen, Shaun |date={{date|2014-01-14|iso}} |quote=...tall buildings don’t create traffic. Cars create traffic. If we want less [automobile] traffic on the streets, we need to build less capacity for them, including parking. |url=http://transitized.com/2014/01/14/density-equal-car-traffic/ |publisher=Transitized}}</ref> At a broader level, there is evidence to indicate a strong negative correlation between the total energy consumption of a city and its overall urban density, i.e. the lower the density, the more energy consumed.<ref>
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