Bookland: Difference between revisions

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== History ==
Until January 1, 2007, all ISBNs were allocated as 9-digit numbers followed by a [[modular arithmetic|modulo]] 11 [[checksum]] character that was either a decimal digit or the letter X. A Bookland EAN was generated by concatenating the Bookland UCC 978, the 9 digits of the book's ISBN other than its checksum, and the EAN checksum digit.<ref>[ Anatomy of a 13-digit ISBN]</ref><ref>{{citation |url=http |title=Elementary number theory with applications |author=Thomas Koshy}}</ref>
Since parts of the 10-character ISBN space are nearly full, all books published from 2007 on have been allocated a 13-digit [[ISBN]], which is identical to the Bookland EAN. The UCC 979 has now been assigned for the expansion of Bookland,<ref>{{citation |url=http |title=Book Marketing Demystified |author=Bruce Trelawny Batchelor}}</ref> and was first used by publishers in the French language, which can use now the additional prefix "979-10-" in addition to the nearly full "978-2-" prefix (onto which legacy 10-character ISBNs starting with "2-" have been remapped). Books numbered with prefixes other than 978 will not be mappable to 10-character ISBNs.
The GS1 is the global identification standards organization for retail. Every country has an assigned country code which precedes the company code. The "country codes" 978 and 979 are now officially registered for allocation by the [[International ISBN Agency]], which maintains the official international registry of ISBN numbers allocated to book publishers.
==Similar mappings==
* [[ISSN]]s (which identify [[periodical publication]]s) are mapped into the UCC 977.<ref>{{citation |url=http |title=International literary market place |year=1999}}</ref>
* [[ISMN]]s (which identify [[sheet music]]) are mapped into the UCC 979. Since the leading "M" of a legacy 10-digit ISMN number (such as M-345-24680-5) is transcoded as 0, the EAN prefix 979-0 is wholly reserved for sheet music and has been dubbed the fictitious country "Musicland". Like ISBNs, ISMNs have been officially allocated using 13 digits since mid-2008.<ref>[ Guidelines for the Implementation of 13-Digit ISMNs]</ref>