===CSTR (Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor)===
* It can be demonstrated that an [[Infinity|infinite]] number of infinitely small CSTRs operating in series would be equivalent to a PFR.
The behavior of a CSTR is often approximated or modeled by that of a Continuous Ideally Stirred-Tank Reactor (CISTR). All calculations performed with CISTRs assume [[perfect mixing]]. If the residence time is 5-10 times the mixing time, this approximation is considered valid for engineering purposes. The CISTR model is often used to simplify engineering calculations and can be used to describe research reactors. In practice it can only be approached, particularly in industrial size reactors in which the mixing time may be very large.
===PFR (Plug Flow Reactor)===