Vācaspati Miśra: Difference between revisions

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|birth_date = unknown, 9th/10th century CE<ref name=jfowlerpor129>Jeaneane Fowler (2002), Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723943, page 129</ref>
|birth_date = 900 CE
|birth_place= [[India]]
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|death_date = 980unknown, 9th/10th century CE<ref name=jfowlerpor129/>
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|philosophy = founded one of the main [[Advaita Vedanta]] schools, the [[Bhāmatī]] schoolHinduism
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|footnotes = [[Indian philosophy|philosopher]]
{{Hindu philosophy}}
'''Vācaspati Miśra''' (900&ndash;980was [[Commona Era|CE]])9th- wasor an10th-century CE [[India]]n [[philosopher]] who founded one of the main [[Advaita Vedanta]] schools,school of [[Hinduism]].<ref name=jfowlerpor129/><ref>{{cite book |last=Isaeva |first=Natalia |title=Shankara and Indian Philosophy |year=1993 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=USA |isbn=978-0-7914-1281-7|pages=66-67}}</ref> His ideas are sometimes called the [[Bhāmatī]] sub-school (namedof afterAdvaita, a name based on the title of his commentary on [[Adi Shankara|Śankara's]] ''Brahma-sūtra-bhāṣya''). Aof peculiar[[Adi feature aboutShankara]]. Vachaspati Miśra's writingswas isa thatprolific hescholar hasand writtenhis writings are extensive, including [[bhasya]] (commentaries) on key texts of almost every 9th-century school of [[Hindu philosophy;]] whilewith doingnotes soon heheterodox writestraditions such as if[[Buddhism]] heand fully believes in the philosophy he is writing about[[Charvaka]].<ref>{{cite book|title=''Hindu Realism''|author=Jagadisha Chandra Chatterji|pages=vi|year=1912}}</ref><ref name=larsonvm301>Gerald James Larson and Ram Shankar Bhattacharya (1987), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 4, Princeton University Press, pages 301-312</ref> He also wrote one non-commentary, ''Tattvabindu.'' Some of his works are lost to history or yet to be found.<ref name=larsonvm301/>
Little is known about Vacaspati Mishra's life, and the earliest text that has been dated with certainty is from 840 CE, and he was at least one generation younger than Adi Shankara.<ref>{{cite book |last=Isaeva |first=Natalia |title=Shankara and Indian Philosophy |year=1993 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=USA |isbn=978-0-7914-1281-7|pages=85-86}}</ref> However, an alternate date for the same text may be 976 CE, according to some scholars, a confusion that is based on whether Hindu Saka or Vikrama era calendar is used for the dating purposes.<ref name=larsonvm301/> His scholarship is revered in the Hindu tradition, which believes that he was a Maithila [[Brahmin]] from [[Bihar]].<ref name=larsonvm301/>
Vācaspati lived near the frontier between India and [[Nepal]] (what is now Vachaspati Nagar (Andhra Thardhi), [[Madhubani, India|Madhubani]]). The details of his life have been lost, though he is said to have named one of his works after his wife, Bhāmatī. He wrote commentaries on the main works of all the major [[Hinduism|Hindu]] schools of thought at the time, as well as one non-commentary, ''Tattvabindu.''
==Primary works==
In ''Tattvabindu'', Vācaspati examines four competing theories of linguistic meaning:
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''Tattvabindu'' is his original work, wherein he develops principles of [[hermeneutics]], and discusses the "Theory of Meaning" for the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.<ref name=larsonvm301/> This is an influential work, and attempted to resolve some of the interpretation disputes on classical Sanskrit texts.<ref name=larsonvm301/>
In ''Tattvabindu'', Vācaspati examines four competing theories of linguistic meaning: {{cn}}
*[[Mandana Misra]]'s (''sphoṭavāda''), which involves grasping the meaning of a word or sentence by perceiving a ''[[sphoṭa]]'' or single holistic sound, which is distinct from the elements (sounds or characters) that make up the word or sentence;
*the [[Nyāya]] theory which involves concatenating the memory traces (''saṃskāra'') of momentary components of a word or sentence when we hear the final momentary component;
After examining each of these theories, Vācaspati presents his own theory, ''abhihitānvayavāda'', according to which understanding of the meaning of a whole sentence is reached by inferring it, in a separate act of ''lakṣanā'' or implication, from the individual meanings of the constituent words.
==Secondary works: Bhasya==
Vacaspati Misra is credited with influential commentaries such as ''Tattvakaumundi'' on [[Samkhyakarika]],<ref>{{cite book |last=Isaeva |first=Natalia |title=Shankara and Indian Philosophy |year=1993 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=USA |isbn=978-0-7914-1281-7|page=124}}</ref> ''Nyayasucinibandha'' on [[Nyaya Sutras]],<ref name=jfowlerpor129/> various important texts of [[Advaita Vedanta]],<ref>{{cite book |last=Isaeva |first=Natalia |title=Shankara and Indian Philosophy |year=1993 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=USA |isbn=978-0-7914-1281-7|page=66}}</ref> ''Nyayakanika'' (an Advaita work on science of reason), ''Tattvasamiksa'' (lost work), ''Nyaya-varttika-tatparyatika'' (a tertiary work on the science of logic and reasoning), ''Tattvavaisaradi'' on [[Yogasutra]], and others.<ref name=larsonvm301/>
==Sources and further reading==